Surface Oxide State on Metal Powder and its Changes during Additive Manufacturing: an Overview
Journal article, 2018
Quality and usefulness of the powder for additive manufacturing (AM) are strongly determined by the surface composition of the powder. In addition, taking into account harsh conditions during AM process, significant changes in the powder surface chemical composition are taking place, limiting powder recyclability. Hence, knowledge concerning amount of oxides, their composition and spatial distribution on the powder surface determines further powder recycling. This communication summarizes possibilities of qualitative and quantitative analysis of powder surface chemistry by surface-sensitive chemical analyses using XPS and HR SEM coupled with EDX.The effect of alloy composition, AM process applied and powder handling on the surface composition of the powder are addressed. Results indicate significant enrichment in the thermodynamically stable surface oxides in case of high-alloyed powder for both, EBM and LS processes. A generic model for the oxide distribution, depending on the alloy composition and powder surface degradation during AM manufacturing, is proposed.