Oxidation of marine oils during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion with human digestive fluids – Role of oil origin, added tocopherols and lipolytic activity
Journal article, 2019

The formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), and 4-oxo-2-nonenal (ONE) in cod liver-, anchovy-, krill-, and algae oil during in vitro digestion with human gastrointestinal fluids was investigated. Adding rabbit gastric lipase, lipase inhibitor (orlistat) and tocopherols to cod liver oil, lipolysis and oxidation was also studied. Among the marine oils, the highest aldehyde levels (18 µM MDA, 3 µM HHE and 0.2 µM HNE) were detected after digestion of cod liver oil, while the lowest levels were detected in krill and algae oils. Addition of rabbit gastric lipase significantly increased the release of HNE during the digestion. Orlistat significantly reduced lipolysis and MDA formation. Formation of MDA and HHE was delayed by tocopherols, the tocopherol mix Covi-ox® T 70 EU being more effective than pure α-tocopherol.



Human gastrointestinal enzymes

Lipase inhibitor

Lipid oxidation

Rabbit gastric lipase


Marine oils


Cecilia Tullberg

Chalmers, Biology and Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science

G. E. Vegarud

Norwegian University of Life Sciences

Ingrid Undeland

Chalmers, Biology and Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science

Food Chemistry

0308-8146 (ISSN)

Vol. 270 527-537

Gastrointestinal oxidation - a poorly studied process preventing optimal effects from our valuable omega-3 fatty acid resources

Formas, 2013-01-01 -- 2015-12-31.

Subject Categories

Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences

Other Basic Medicine

Pharmacology and Toxicology



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