Creating Appropriate Trust in Automated Vehicle Systems: A Framework for HMI Design
Journal article, 2018
While automated vehicle technology progresses, potentially leading to a safer and more efficient traffic environment, many challenges remain within the area of human factors, such as user trust for automated driving (AD) vehicle systems. The aim of this paper is to investigate how an appropriate level of user trust for AD vehicle systems can be created via human–machine interaction (HMI). A guiding framework for implementing trust-related factors into the HMI interface is presented. This trust-based framework incorporates usage phases, AD events, trust-affecting factors, and levels explaining each event from a trust perspective. Based on the research findings, the authors recommend that HMI designers and automated vehicle manufacturers take a more holistic perspective on trust rather than focusing on single, “isolated” events, for example understanding that trust formation is a dynamic process that starts long before a user's first contact with the system, and continues long thereafter. Furthermore, factors-affecting trust change, both during user interactions with the system and over time; thus, HMI concepts need to be able to adapt. Future work should be dedicated to understanding how trust-related factors interact, as well as validating and testing the trust-based framework.
human–machine interaction (HMI)
Automated vehicle systems