Soot Formation and Radiative Heat Transfer in Oxy-Fuel and Oxygen-Enhanced Propane Flames
Conference contribution, 2018
This work aims to determine radiation-related properties of various propane flames, where the measurements were conducted in a down-fired and cylindrical 100 kW furnace equipped with a swirl burner. The combustion conditions were varied by altering the composition of the oxidant. For six cases, oxygen-enhanced air was used, step-wise varying the oxygen concentration in the oxidant from 21% to 32%. Also for six cases, the furnace was operated in oxy-fuel mode, recirculating dry flue gas and varying the oxygen concentration from 25% to 42%. All measurements were conducted at an axial distance of 384 mm from the burner. Temperature, gas composition and radiative intensity were measured (by intrusive instruments) along the furnace diameter using probes while the soot volume fraction was quantified using non-intrusive laser induced incandescence (LII). An Nd:YAG laser at wavelength 1064 nm was used for the LII measurements, and a diode laser at wavelength 808 nm was used for extinction measurements for absolute calibration of the LII-signal. Two-dimensional images of the LII-signal were captured using an intensified CCD-camera and radial profiles of the soot volume fraction were achieved. The soot volume fraction increased with increasing oxygen concentration in the feed gas, and, when the oxygen concentration exceeded 30 and 42% for the oxygen-enriched air and oxy-fuel cases, respectively, the soot formation was substantially enhanced with volume fractions more than 10 times higher than for lower oxygen concentrations. The higher oxygen concentration required for the increased soot production in the oxy-fuel combustion cases is mainly due to the higher heat capacity of carbon dioxide that lowers the flame temperatures. The data collected from the measurements was used to model the radiative intensity using a discrete transfer model. In this model, gas properties are calculated using a statistical narrow-band model and particle properties are calculated using Rayleigh theory. Good agreement was achieved between the modeled and measured radiative intensity for most flames and the use of an LII-system to measure the soot volume fraction in this type of furnace was successful.
Laser induced incandescence
Radiative heat transfer