Long-Term Whole Grain Wheat and Rye Intake Reflected by Adipose Tissue Alkylresorcinols and Breast Cancer: A Case-Cohort Study
Journal article, 2019

Whole grain rye (WGR) and whole grain wheat (WGW) have been suggested to protect against the development of breast cancer. In this study, we estimated long-term intake of WGR and WGW, using both a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and alkylresorcinol concentrations in adipose tissue biopsies, in relation to the risk of developing invasive breast cancer in a case-cohort study (n = 414 in the case group, n = 933 in the subcohort group) on the Danish "Diet, Cancer and Health" cohort. The median follow-up time of the subcohort was 5.3 years. Total WGR and WGW intake estimated with FFQ or reflected by total alkylresorcinol concentration in adipose tissue was not significantly associated with risk of breast cancer. However, after adjustment for total WGR and WGW intake, women in the highest quartile of relative WGR intake, reflected by the alkylresorcinol C17:0/C21:0 ratio, had a higher risk of overall breast cancer and estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer than women in the lowest quartile of relative WGR intake, while the risk of estrogen-receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer incidence was unaffected. Similar results were obtained with the FFQ data. Based on these data, further investigation of the role of specific grain types in reducing or increasing breast cancer risk, and their overall impact on health, is warranted.

adipose tissue

whole grain



breast cancer



Huaxing Wu

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)

C. Kyro

Danish Cancer Research Society Center

Anne Tjønneland

Danish Cancer Research Society Center

Katja Boll

Danish Cancer Research Society Center

A. Olsen

Danish Cancer Research Society Center

K. Overvad

Aarhus University

Rikard Landberg

Chalmers, Biology and Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science


2072-6643 (ISSN) 20726643 (eISSN)

Vol. 11 2 465

Subject Categories

Urology and Nephrology

Cancer and Oncology

Nutrition and Dietetics





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