Towards occupant protections for both men and women
Paper in proceedings, 2019

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020. The susceptibility of female occupants to Whiplash Associated Disorders (WADs) has been the focus over the past decades. To improve occupant protections, it is required to understand how gender differences affect the WAD injury mechanisms. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential impact of the whole spinal alignment on the cervical vertebral kinematics and ligament elongation during a rear impact by analysing rear impact reconstruction simulations. The simulations demonstrated a potential impact of gender differences in whole spinal alignment on cervical vertebral kinematics and ligament elongations. It seems that the average female spinal alignment may expose women to larger deformation of the cervical soft tissues considered related to WAD, due to greater cervical vertebral kinematics, compared to the average male spinal alignment. The findings highlight the importance of the whole spinal alignment when developing female models to evaluate WAD countermeasures, and may thus improve occupant protection for women as well as men.

Cervical vertebral kinematics

Finite element analysis

Rear impact

Automotive seated posture

Neck injury


Spinal alignment




Fusako Sato Sakayachi

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Vehicle Safety

Japan Automobile Research Institute

Karin Brolin

Injury Prevention

Mats Svensson

Injury Prevention

Astrid Linder

The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI)

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Vehicle Safety

Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing

21945357 (ISSN)

Vol. 975 603-615

AHFE International Conference on Additive Manufacturing, Modeling Systems and 3D Prototyping, 2019
Washington D.C., USA,

Subject Categories

Gender Studies

Other Medical Engineering

Environmental Health and Occupational Health



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