A Virtual Design of Experiments Method to Evaluate the Effect of Design and Welding Parameters on Weld Quality in Aerospace Applications
Journal article, 2019

During multidisciplinary design of welded aircraft components, designs are principally
optimized upon component performance, employing well-established modelling and simulation
techniques. On the contrary, because of the complexity of modelling welding process phenomena,
much of the welding experimentation relies on physical testing, which means welding producibility
aspects are considered after the design has already been established. In addition, welding optimization
research mainly focuses on welding process parameters, overlooking the potential impact of product
design. As a consequence, redesign loops and welding rework increases product cost. To solve these
problems, in this article, a novel method that combines the benefits of design of experiments (DOE)
techniques with welding simulation is presented. The aim of the virtual design of experiments method
is to model and optimize the effect of design and welding parameters interactions early in the design
process. The method is explained through a case study, in which weld bead penetration and distortion
are quality responses to optimize. First, a small number of physical welds are conducted to develop
and tune the welding simulation. From this activity, a new combined heat source model is presented.
Thereafter, the DOE technique optimal design is employed to design an experimental matrix that
enables the conjointly incorporation of design and welding parameters. Welding simulations are
then run and a response function is obtained. With virtual experiments, a large number of design
and welding parameter combinations can be tested in a short time. In conclusion, the creation of
a meta-model allows for performing welding producibility optimization and robustness analyses
during early design phases of aircraft components

design of experiments

welding producibility

aerospace design for manufacturing

welding simulation


Julia Madrid

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Product Development

Samuel C Lorin

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Product Development

Rikard Söderberg

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science

Peter Hammersberg

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Engineering Materials

Kristina Wärmefjord

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Product Development

Johan Lööf

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Product Development


2226-4310 (ISSN)

Vol. 6 6 74-

Subject Categories

Aerospace Engineering

Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology

Vehicle Engineering

Areas of Advance


Materials Science



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