Multi-Panel Sparse Base Station Design with Physical Antenna Effects in Massive MU-MIMO
Journal article, 2020
A novel base station antenna (BSA) configuration is presented to mitigate degrading physical antenna effects in massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, while minimizing implementation complexities. Instead of using a commonly considered single antenna panel comprising of many elements covering a wide field-of-view (FOV) of 120 degrees, L tilted panels are used employing L times fewer elements and L times smaller FOV per panel. The spatial resolution of each panel is enhanced by employing sparse arrays with suppressed (grating-lobe) radiation outside its corresponding FOV. Therefore, more directive antenna elements can be deployed in each panel to compensate for the effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) reduction. While sectorisation reduces the antenna gain variation in 120 degrees FOV, cooperation among multiple panels in downlink beamforming is seen to be capable of inter-panel interference suppression for sum-rate enhancement. A network model is used as a multi-user (MU) MIMO simulator incorporating both antenna and channel effects. It is shown that when the number of base station antennas is ten times the number of users, the average downlink sum-rate in pure line-of-sight (LOS), rich and poor multipath environments is increased up to 60.2%, 23% and 11.1%, respectively, by multi-panel sparse arrays applying zero-forcing (ZF) precoding.
Base station antenna