Effects of High Intakes of Fructose and Galactose, with or without Added Fructooligosaccharides, on Metabolic Factors, Inflammation, and Gut Integrity in a Rat Model
Journal article, 2021

Scope A high fructose and galactose intake show adverse metabolic effects in animal models and in humans, but it is yet unknown if addition of fermentable dietary fiber can mitigate such effects. This study investigate the effects of high intakes of fructose and galactose, with/without added fructooligosaccharides (FOS), on metabolic factors, inflammation, and gut integrity markers in rats. Methods and Results Rats (n = 6/group) receive different carbohydrates at isocaloric conditions for 12 weeks as follows: 1) starch (control), 2) fructose, 3) galactose, 4) starch + FOS (FOS control), 5) fructose + FOS, and 6) galactose + FOS, together with a high amount of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) in all diets except for in 7) starch + olive oil (negative control). The rats fed the galactose and galactose + FOS diets exhibit lower body weight than other groups. High-galactose diets has more pronounced effects on metabolic factors and gut permeability than high-fructose diets. High-fructose diets show less pronounced effect on these selected markers. No differences in inflammatory markers are detected for any of the diets. Conclusions The results suggest potential adverse effects of high galactose and fructose on metabolic factors and gut integrity markers, but not on inflammation. However, several mechanisms are at play, and general net effects are difficult to determine conclusively for the conditions tested.




inflammatory markers

gut integrity


Adila Omar

Karolinska Institutet

Chalmers, Biology and Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science

Jan Frank

University of Hohenheim

Johanita Kruger

University of Hohenheim

Federica Dal Bello

University of Turin

Claudio Medana

University of Turin

Massimo Collino

University of Turin

Galia Zamaratskaia

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)

Karl Michaelsson

Uppsala University

Alicja Wolk

Uppsala University

Karolinska Institutet

Rikard Landberg

Chalmers, Biology and Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science

Umeå University

Molecular Nutrition and Food Research

1613-4125 (ISSN) 1613-4133 (eISSN)

Vol. 65 6 2001133

Subject Categories

Other Clinical Medicine

Food Science

Nutrition and Dietetics





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