Alcohol flexible HD single cylinder diesel engine tests with separate dual high pressure direct fuel injection
Journal article, 2021

Both greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and local emissions from heavy duty (HD) Diesel engines must be greatly reduced to make transportation sustainable and comply with increasingly stringent emissions regulations. The fuel flexible engine concept for HD Diesel engines uses a dual fuel direct injection system in which ignition of the main alcohol fuel, either methanol or ethanol, is induced by a small Diesel pilot injection delivered via a separate direct injector. The objective of this investigation was to find ways to combine the advantages of conventional Diesel engines with the advantages of low carbon fuels and to thereby bypass the soot-NOx-trade-off. Experiments were conducted using a modified single-cylinder HD engine and three fuels (methanol, ethanol, and a reference Diesel fuel) to determine how the choice of fuel affected the engine's combustion behaviour, emissions and fuel efficiency. Injection pressures on the alcohol side were varied up to 1500 bar and the investigation was carried out at low, medium and high speed-load points. The alcohol fuels significantly outperformed Diesel fuel under all tested conditions (with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)). Indicated thermal efficiency was increased by up to 3.5%-points and simultaneously soot emissions were lowered by a factor of 40 or more and NOx by 20%. Combustion stability and emissions were in the same range as for Diesel but replacing more than 95 % of the fossil Diesel with an alcohol fuel.

Dual fuel

Heavy duty

Flex fuel engine

Dual direct injection

Author

Michael Saccullo

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Combustion and Propulsion Systems

Andreas Nygren

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Combustion and Propulsion Systems, Combustions and Sprays

Timothy Benham

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Combustion and Propulsion Systems, Laboratorium

Ingemar Denbratt

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Combustion and Propulsion Systems, Engines and Propulsion Systems

Fuel

0016-2361 (ISSN)

Vol. 294 120478

Subject Categories

Other Mechanical Engineering

Energy Engineering

Chemical Process Engineering

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

DOI

10.1016/j.fuel.2021.120478

More information

Latest update

3/25/2021