Female kinematics and muscle responses in lane change and lane change with braking maneuvers
Journal article, 2021
Objective: The primary aim of this article is to extensively study female occupant kinematics and muscle activations in vehicle maneuvers potentially occurring in precrash situations and with different seat belt configurations. The secondary aim is to provide validation data for active human body models (AHBMs) of female occupants in representative precrash loading situations. Methods: Front seat female passengers wearing a 3-point seat belt, with either standard or pre-pretensioning functionality, were subjected to multiple autonomously carried-out lane change and lane change with braking maneuvers while traveling at 73 km/h. This article quantifies the head center of gravity and T1 vertebra body (T1) linear and rotational displacements. This article also includes surface electromyography (EMG) data collected from 38 muscles in the neck, torso, and upper and lower extremities, all normalized by maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). The raw EMG data were filtered, rectified, and smoothed. Separate Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed on EMG onset and amplitude as well as peak displacements of head and T1 considering 2 paired samples with the belt configuration as an independent variable. Results: Significantly smaller lateral and forward displacements for head and T1 were found with the pre-pretensioner belt versus the standard belt (P <.05). Averaged muscle activity, mainly in the neck, lumbar extensor, and abdominal muscles, increased up to 16% MVC immediately after the vehicle accelerated in the lateral direction. Muscles in the right and left sides of the body displayed differences in activation time and amplitude relative to the vehicle’s lateral motion. For specific muscles, lane changes with the pre-pretensioner belt resulted in earlier muscle activation onsets and significantly smaller activation amplitudes compared to the standard belt (P <.05). Conclusions: The presented results from female passengers complement the previously published results from male passengers subjected to the same loading scenarios. The data provided in this article can be used for validation of AHBMs of female occupants in both sagittal and lateral loading scenarios potentially occurring prior to a crash. Additionally, our results show that a pre-pretensioner belt decreases muscle activation onset and amplitude as well as forward and lateral displacements of head and T1 compared to a standard belt, confirming previously published results.
human body model