Novel suspension route to incorporate graphene nano-platelets in HVAF-sprayed Cr3C2eNiCr coatings for superior wear performance
Journal article, 2021

Graphene nano platelets (GNP) have several attractive properties, including excellent lubricity
that can be used to develop wear-resistant coatings. Thermally sprayed chromium
carbideenickel chromium (Cr3C2eNiCr) coatings are widely employed to impart wear
resistance to engineering components. This work attempts to improve the wear resistance
of high velocity air fuel (HVAF) sprayed Cr3C2eNiCr coatings by incorporating GNP using a
hybrid approach in which Cr3C2eNiCr (powder) and GNP (suspension) are co-axially
injected. Two different powder-to-suspension delivery ratios were employed in this
study that utilizes a liquid feedstock in tandem with a HVAF system. Furthermore, for
comparison, a pure (without graphene) Cr3C2eNiCr reference coating was deposited by the
HVAF process using identical spray parameters. The as-sprayed coatings were characterized
for their microstructure and phase constitution by SEM/EDS and X-Ray Diffraction.
Mechanical properties such as hardness and fracture toughness were evaluated using
micro-indentation technique. The hybrid coatings were subjected to dry sliding wear tests
and wear performance was compared with reference Cr3C2eNiCr. The GNP incorporated
hybrid coatings exhibited lower CoF and lower wear rates than the reference Cr3C2eNiCr
coating. Post wear SEM/EDS analysis revealed different wear mechanisms predominant in
the investigated coatings. Utilizing the above as a case study, this work provides key insights
into a new approach to produce GNP incorporated coatings for mitigating wear.


Graphene nano-platelets (GNP)

Powder-suspension hybrid

High velocity air fuel (HVAF)

Sliding wear


Satyapal Mahade

University West

Antonio Mulone

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Materials and manufacture

Stefan Bjorklund

University West

Uta Klement

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Materials and manufacture

Shrikant Joshi

University West

Journal of Materials Research and Technology

2238-7854 (eISSN)

13 498-512

Large area deposition of graphene-containing coatings for diverse functional applications

VINNOVA, 2018-12-01 -- 2020-12-31.

VINNOVA, 2018-12-01 -- 2020-12-31.

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Subject Categories


Materials Engineering

Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology

Areas of Advance


Materials Science


Chalmers Materials Analysis Laboratory



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