Production of negative-emissions steel using a reducing gas derived from dfb gasification
Journal article, 2021

A dual fluidized bed (DFB) gasification process is proposed to produce sustainable reducing gas for the direct reduction (DR) of iron ore. This novel steelmaking route is compared with the established process for DR, which is based on natural gas, and with the emerging DR technology using electrolysis-generated hydrogen as the reducing gas. The DFB-DR route is found to produce reducing gas that meets the requirement of the DR reactor, based on existing MIDREX plants, and which is produced with an energetic efficiency comparable with the natural gas route. The DFB-DR path is the only route considered that allows negative CO2 emissions, enabling a 145% decrease in emissions relative to the traditional blast furnace–basic oxygen furnace (BF–BOF) route. A reducing gas cost between 45–60 EUR/MWh is obtained, which makes it competitive with the hydrogen route, but not the natural gas route. The cost estimation for liquid steel production shows that, in Sweden, the DFB-DR route cannot compete with the natural gas and BF–BOF routes without a cost associated with carbon emissions and a revenue attributed to negative emissions. When the cost and revenue are set as equal, the DFB-DR route becomes the most competitive for a carbon price >60 EUR/tCO2.




Iron reduction


Chemical-loop-ing gasification


Negative emissions


Sébastien Pissot

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Energy Technology

Henrik Thunman

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Energy Technology

Peter Samuelsson

Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)

Martin Seemann

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Energy Technology


1996-1073 (ISSN)

Vol. 14 16 4835

FerroSilva – production of sponge iron using biogenic reduction gas

Swedish Energy Agency (51220-1), 2021-04-01 -- 2022-09-30.

Subject Categories

Chemical Process Engineering


Energy Systems



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