Gender Aspects in Driving Style and Its Impact on Battery Ageing
Journal article, 2022

The long and tiring discussion of who are the best drivers, men or women, is not answered in this article. This article, though, sheds some light on the actual differences that can be seen in how men and women drive. In this study, GPS-recorded driving dynamics data from 123 drivers, 48 women and 75 men, are analysed and drivers are categorised as aggressive, normal or gentle. A total of 10% of the drivers was categorised as aggressive, with an even distribution between the genders. For the gentle drivers, 11% of the drivers, the men dominated. The driving style investigation was extended to utilise machine learning, confirming the results from statistical tools. As driving style highly impacts a vehicle's fuel consumption, while switching over to battery electric vehicles it is important to investigate how the different driving styles impact battery utilisation. Two Li-ion battery cell types were tested utilising the same load cycle with three levels of current amplitude, to represent accelerations for the three drive categories. While one cell type was insensitive to the current amplitude, the highly energy-optimised cell proved to be sensitive to higher current amplitudes, corresponding to a more aggressive driving style. Thus, the amplitude of the dynamic current can for some cells be a factor that needs to be considered for lifetime predictions, while it can be neglected for other cells.

electric vehicle

machine learning

lithium-ion battery

support vector machine



driving style


Evelina Wikner

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Electric Power Engineering

Raik Orbay

Volvo Cars

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Electric Power Engineering

Sara Fogelström

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Electric Power Engineering

Torbjörn Thiringer

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Electric Power Engineering


1996-1073 (ISSN) 19961073 (eISSN)

Vol. 15 18 6791

Differences in the design and ageing of a vehicle battery depending on whether men or women are the dominating drivers

GENIE, Chalmers Gender Initiative for Excellence, 2020-01-01 -- 2021-12-31.

The Chalmers University Foundation, 2020-01-01 -- 2021-12-31.

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