Soluble and hydrolyzable phenolic compounds in date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and UPLC-DAD
Journal article, 2024

Phenolic compounds in plant foods exist in soluble, hydrolyzable, and insoluble forms. This study is the first to analyze both soluble (extracted using 80 % methanol) and hydrolyzable (extracted using ethyl acetate after alkaline hydrolysis) phenolics in 18 date cultivars. The phenolic compounds were identified and quantified using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and diode array detectors. A total of 59 peaks were detected, of which 45 were identified while 14 remained unidentified. The concentrations of the soluble and hydrolyzable phenolics ranged from 27.5–54.0 and 24–78.5 mg/100 g fresh weight, respectively. Gallic acid and ferulic acid predominated in the soluble and hydrolyzable fractions, quercetin and taxifolin were predominant in the soluble fraction, while caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid were abundant in the hydrolyzable fraction. The hydrolyzable phenolics were found to contribute significantly to the total phenolic content of date fruits pointing to the need to include them in the analysis of total phenolic compounds in foods.


Hydrolyzable phenolics

Phoenix dactylifera L.

Date fruit


Soluble phenolics


Muneeba Zubair Alam

United Arab Emirates University

Rikard Fristedt

Chalmers, Life Sciences, Food and Nutrition Science

Rikard Landberg

Chalmers, Life Sciences, Food and Nutrition Science

A. Kamal-Eldin

United Arab Emirates University

Journal of Food Composition and Analysis

0889-1575 (ISSN) 1096-0481 (eISSN)

Vol. 132 106354

Subject Categories

Analytical Chemistry

Food Science



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