Development and Implementation of Mobility-as-a-Service - A Qualitative Study of Barriers and Enabling Factors
Journal article, 2020

Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) has been argued as part of the solution to prevalent transport problems. However, progress from pilots to large-scale implementation has hitherto been slow. The aim of the research reported in this paper was to empirically and in-depth investigate how, and to what extent, different factors affect the development and implementation of MaaS. A framework was developed, with a basis in institutional theory and the postulation that formal as well informal factors on different analytical levels (macro, meso and micro) must be considered. The research was organised as a multiple case study in Finland and Sweden and a qualitative approach was chosen for data collection and analysis. A number of factors with a claimed impact on the development and implementation of MaaS was revealed. At the macro level, these factors included legislation concerning transport, innovation and public administration, and the presence (or not) of a shared vision for MaaS. At the meso level, (the lack of) appropriate business models, cultures of collaboration, and assumed roles and responsibilities within the MaaS ecosystem were identified as significant factors. At the micro level, people’s attitudes and habits were recognised as important factors to be considered. However, how the ‘S’ in MaaS fits (or not) the transport needs of the individual/household appears to play a more important role in adoption or rejection of MaaS than what has often been acknowledged in previous papers on MaaS.The findings presented in this paper provide several implications for public and private sector actors. Law-making authorities can facilitate MaaS developments by adjusting relevant regulations and policies such as transport-related subsidies, taxation policies and the definition of public transport. Regional and local authorities could additionally contribute to creating conducive conditions for MaaS by, for example, planning urban designs and transport infrastructures to support service-based travelling. Moreover, private actors have key roles to play in future MaaS developments, as both public and private transport services are needed if MaaS is to become a viable alternative to privately owned cars. Thus, the advance of MaaS business models that benefit all involved actors is vital for the prosperity of the emerging MaaS ecosystem.


Formal institutions

Informal institutions




Marianne Karlsson

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Design and Human Factors

Dalia Mukhtar-Landgren

Lund University

Göran Smith

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Design and Human Factors

Region Västra Götaland

The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport

Till Koglin

Lund University

Annica Kronsell

University of Gothenburg

Emma Lund


Steven Sarasini

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Jana Sochor

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Design and Human Factors

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice

0965-8564 (ISSN)

Vol. 131 283-295

Institutional Frameworks for Integrated Mobility Services in future cities - IRIMS

VINNOVA (2015-03551), 2015-10-15 -- 2018-02-22.

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Areas of Advance


Subject Categories

Transport Systems and Logistics



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