Monitoring the DNA binding kinetics of a binuclear ruthenium complex by energy transfer: Evidence for slow shuffling
Journal article, 2005
The semirigid binuclear ruthenium complex Delta,Delta-[mu-(11,11-bidppz)(phen)(4)Ru-2](4+) has been shown to rearrange slowly from an initial groove-bound nonluminescent state to a final intercalated emissive state by threading one of its bulky Ru(phen)(2) moieties through the DNA base stack. When this complex binds to poly[d(A-T)(2)], a further increase in emission from the complex is observed after completion of the intercalation, assigned to reorganization of the intercalated complex. We here report a study of the threading process in poly[d(A-T)(2)], in which the minor groove binding dye DAPI is used as an energy transfer probe molecule to assess the distribution of ruthenium complex during and also after the actual threading phase. The emission from DAPI is found to change with the same rate as the emission from the ruthenium complex, and furthermore, DAPI does not disturb the binding kinetics of the latter, justifying it as a good probe of both the threading and the reorganization processes. We conclude from the change in the emission from both DAPI and the ruthenium complex with time that DAPI-ruthenium interactions are most pronounced during the process of threading of the complex, suggesting that the complexes are initially threaded slightly anticooperatively and thereafter redistribute along the DNA to reach their thermodynamically most favorable distribution. The final distribution is characterized by a small but significant binding cooperativity, probably as a result of hydrophobic interactions between the complex ions despite their tetravalent positive charges. The mechanism of "shuffling" the complex along the DNA chain is discussed, i.e., whether the ruthenium complex remains threaded (requiring sequential base-pair openings) or if unthreading followed by lateral diffusion within the ionic atmosphere of the DNA and rethreading occurs.
ANTITUMOR DRUG NOGALAMYCIN