LES Study of The Influence of a Train-Nose Shape on The Flow Structures Under the Influence of a Cross-Wind
Journal article, 2008
Cross-wind flows around two simplified high-speed trains with different nose shapes are studied using large-eddy simulation (LES) with the standard Smagorinsky model. The Reynolds number is 300000 based on the height of the train and the free-stream velocity. The cross section and the length of the two train models are identical whilst one model has a nose length twice that of the other. The three-dimensional effects of the nose on the flow structures in the wake and on the aerodynamic quantities such as lift and side force coefficients, flow patterns, local pressure coefficient and wake frequencies are investigated. The short-nose train simulation shows highly unsteady and three-dimensional flow around the nose yielding more vortex structures in the wake. These structures result in a surface flow that differs from that in the long-nose train flow. They also influence the dominating frequencies that arise due to the shear-layer instabilities. Prediction of vortex shedding, flow patterns in the train surface and time-averaged pressure distribution obtained from the long-nose train simulation are in good agreement with the available experimental data.