The development of a novel ferric phytate compound for iron fortification of bouillons (part I)
Journal article, 2020
In a series of two studies, we report the development (this study) and evaluation (part II) of a novel ferric phytate compound designed as a condiment iron fortificant. Condiments are used as iron fortification vehicles to reduce the prevalence of iron deficiency. The challenge for iron fortificants in e.g. a bouillon matrix is to avoid undesired sensory effects and to ensure a reasonable cost. We added phytic acid to chelate iron, and hydrolysed protein to counteract the inhibiting effect of phytic acid on iron bioaccessibility. We characterised four novel ferric phytate compounds, destabilised by hydrolysed plant protein or amino acids. Colour stability of fortified bouillons with ferric phytate compounds was superior to bouillons fortified with ferrous sulfate. The iron-phytate-hydrolysed corn protein compound (Fe-PAHCP) resulted in highest cellular ferritin induction in Caco-2 cells, in both vegetable (36.1 ± 13.40 ng/mg protein) and chicken (73.9 ± 19.93 ng/mg protein) bouillon matrices as observed in the human Caco-2/ HepG2 cell model. Iron uptake (as estimated by ferritin production) from the Fe-PA-HCP compound was about 55% (chicken bouillon) and 66% (vegetable bouillon) of the iron uptake from ferrous sulfate. Based on this study, the Fe-PA-HCP compound was chosen for further evaluation (part II).