Real-time imaging of Na+ reversible intercalation in "Janus" graphene stacks for battery applications
Journal article, 2021

Sodium, in contrast to other metals, cannot intercalate in graphite, hindering the use of this cheap, abundant element in rechargeable batteries. Here, we report a nanometric graphite-like anode for Na+ storage, formed by stacked graphene sheets functionalized only on one side, termed Janus graphene. The asymmetric functionalization allows reversible intercalation of Na+, as monitored by operando Raman spectroelectrochemistry and visualized by imaging ellipsometry. Our Janus graphene has uniform pore size, controllable functionalization density, and few edges; it can store Na+ differently from graphite and stacked graphene. Density functional theory calculations demonstrate that Na+ preferably rests close to -NH2 group forming synergic ionic bonds to graphene, making the interaction process energetically favorable. The estimated sodium storage up to C6.9Na is comparable to graphite for standard lithium ion batteries. Given such encouraging Na+ reversible intercalation behavior, our approach provides a way to design carbon-based materials for sodium ion batteries.

Author

Jinhua Sun

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Materials and manufacture

Matthew Sadd

Chalmers, Physics, Materials Physics

Philip Edenborg

Chalmers, Physics, Chemical Physics

Competence Centre for Catalysis (KCK)

Henrik Grönbeck

Chalmers, Physics, Chemical Physics

Competence Centre for Catalysis (KCK)

Peter H. Thiesen

Accurion

Zhenyuan Xia

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Materials and manufacture

Vanesa Quintano

National Research Council of Italy (CNR)

Ren Qiu

Chalmers, Physics, Microstructure Physics

Aleksandar Matic

Chalmers, Physics, Materials Physics

Vincenzo Palermo

National Research Council of Italy (CNR)

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Materials and manufacture

Science advances

2375-2548 (eISSN)

Vol. 7 22 eabf0812

Graphene Core Project 3 (Graphene Flagship)

European Commission (EC) (881603GrapheneCore3), 2020-04-01 -- 2023-03-31.

Janus-like, Asymmetric graphene Nanosheets for Ultrafiltration and Sieving.

Swedish Research Council (VR) (2017-04456), 2018-01-01 -- 2021-12-31.

Subject Categories

Inorganic Chemistry

Materials Chemistry

Theoretical Chemistry

DOI

10.1126/sciadv.abf0812

PubMed

34049889

More information

Latest update

6/11/2021