An experimental and numerical study of the effects of length scale and strain state on the necking and fracture behaviours in sheet metals
Journal article, 2009

Within sheet metal forming, crashworthiness analysis in the automotive industry and ship research on collision and grounding, modelling of the material failure/fracture, including the behaviour at large plastic deformations, is critical for accurate failure predictions. In order to validate existing failure models used in finite element (FE) simulations in terms of dependence on length scale and strain state, tests recorded with the optical strain measuring system ARAMIS have been conducted. With this system, the stress–strain behaviour of uniaxial tensile tests was examined locally, and from this information true stress–strain relations were calculated on different length scales across the necking region. Forming limit tests were conducted to study the multiaxial failure behaviour of the material in terms of necking and fracture. The failure criteria that were verified against the tests were chosen among those available in the FE software Abaqus and the Bressan–Williams–Hill (BWH) criterion proposed by Alsos et al, 2008. The experimental and numerical results from the tensile tests confirmed that Barba’s relation is valid for handling stress–strain dependence on the length scale used for strain evaluation after necking. Also, the evolution of damage in the FE simulations was related to the processes ultimately leading to initiation and propagation of a macroscopic crack in the final phase of the tensile tests. Furthermore, numerical simulations using the BWH criterion for prediction of instability at the necking point showed good agreement with the forming limit test results. The effect of pre-straining in the forming limit tests and the FE simulations of them is discussed.


Per Hogström

Ship Design

Jonas Ringsberg

Ship Design

Erland Johnson

Ship Design

International Journal of Impact Engineering

0734-743X (ISSN)

Vol. 36 10-11 1194-1203

Areas of Advance



Materials Science


Basic sciences

Driving Forces

Innovation and entrepreneurship

Subject Categories

Reliability and Maintenance

Other Materials Engineering

Vehicle Engineering

More information