Effects of different growth forms of Mucor indicus on cultivation on dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate, inhibitor tolerance, and cell wall composition
Journal article, 2009
The dimorphic fungus Mucor indicus was grown in different forms classified as purely filamentous, mostly filamentous, mostly yeast-like and purely yeast-like, and the relationship between morphology and metabolite production, inhibitor tolerance and the cell wall composition was investigated. Low concentrations of spores in the inoculum with subsequent aeration promoted filamentous growth, whereas higher spore concentrations and anaerobic conditions promoted yeast-like growth. Ethanol was the main metabolite with glycerol next under all conditions tested. The yields of ethanol from glucose were between 0.39 and 0.42 g g(-1) with productivities of 3.2-5.0 g l(-1) h(-1). The ethanol productivity of mostly filamentous cells was increased from 3.9 to 5.0 g l(-1) h(-1) by the presence of oxygen, whereas aeration of purely yeast-like cells showed no such effect. All growth forms were able to tolerate 4.6 g l(-1) furfural and 10 g l(-1) acetic acid and assimilate the sugars, although with different consumption rates. The cell wall content of the fungus measured as alkali insoluble materials (AIM) of the purely yeast-like cells was 26% of the biomass, compared to 8% of the pure filaments. However, the chitosan concentration of the filaments was 29% of the AIM, compared to 6% of the yeast-like cells.
Dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzates