Improved iron solubility in carrot juice fermented by homo- and hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacteria
Journal article, 2005
To evaluate lactic acid fermentation as a means to increase the availability of iron in carrot juice, two strains (Lactobacillus pentosus FSC1 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides FSC2), two types of carrot juice and two modes of fermentation were compared. Fermentation improved iron solubility up to 30 fold. The total mineral content and the yield of soluble iron differed between the two types of juice. Addition of pectolytic enzyme and cellulase further improved iron solubility in fermented juice by about 10%. L. pentosus FSC1 yielded the largest improvement in soluble iron, which was not simply a result of a decrease in pH. The concentration of soluble iron in Ln. mesenteroides FSC2 fermentation was linearly related to the major acids produced. Besides, the mineral inhibitor phytate was completely degraded in all the fermentations. Lactic acid fermentation strongly improves iron solubility in carrot juice. The level of improvement was strain specific and related to the produced acids rather than a simple pH effect. Composition of carrot juice and addition of viscosity-reducing enzymes also contributed to this improvement. Our study suggests that carrot juice with high mineral availability may be achieved by fermentation using selected starter cultures, substrate and process.