Fabrication of Integrated HBV Multipliers for THz Generation
Licentiate thesis, 2013

The main objective of this licentiate thesis is to demonstrate silicon integrated HBV frequency multipliers for THz generation with RF performance comparable with InP technology. The choice of silicon is motivated by better thermal and mechanical properties, cost and ease of integration compared to III-V semiconductor substrates. Moreover, micromachining of silicon allows fabrication of membranes, antennas and waveguides suitable for THz frequencies. A W-band silicon integrated frequency tripler is demonstrated. Plasma assisted wafer bonding was utilised to integrate InP-based HBV material on silicon substrate. The transferred material was characterised using: atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and Auger spectroscopy. The maximum output power measured for this device was more than 180 mW, corresponding to 23 % of efficiency. For comparison, a monolithically integrated HBV frequency multiplier on InP substrate was fabricated and demonstrated. The peak effiency and output power for both the Si and the InP basecid tripler are comparable. Finally, a x tuned 175 GHz frequency quintupler is presented. The multiplier is based on a single HBV diode that is flip-chip soldered into a microstrip matching circuit. The circuit is fabricated from AlN substrate, a material that has a good thermal conductivity. This device delivers 60 mW output power corresponding to 6.3 % of efficiency.


indium phosphide

frequency multipliers

power sensors

Epitaxial transfer

heterostructure barrier varactors

MC2, Kollektorn
Opponent: Dr. Per-Åke Nilsson


Aleksandra Malko

Chalmers, Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Terahertz and Millimetre Wave Laboratory

A 175 GHz HBV Frequency Quintupler With 60 mW Output Power

IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters,; Vol. 22(2012)p. 76-78

Journal article

High Efficiency and Broad-Band Operation of Monolithically Integrated W-Band HBV Frequency Tripler

24th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, IPRM 2012, Univeristy of Califorania, Santa Barbara, 27 - 30 August 2012,; (2012)p. 92-94

Paper in proceeding

Areas of Advance

Information and Communication Technology

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (SO 2010-2017, EI 2018-)


Nanofabrication Laboratory

Subject Categories

Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering

Technical report MC2 - Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology: 243

MC2, Kollektorn

Opponent: Dr. Per-Åke Nilsson

More information