Investigating Recommended Temperature Zones and Clothing Assumptions in the Assessment of Classrooms’ Thermal Environment
Paper in proceeding, 2018

There has been a lot of research over recent years on children’s thermal comfort, which highlighted the different needs of young children compared to adults. These findings pose a challenge to designers on how to best meet these needs. This paper focuses on recommended temperature zones and assumptions used in standards through a case study in a grade school in Gothenburg, Sweden. Six classrooms were investigated in three buildings of the same school. The indoor temperature was measured using small-scale data loggers programmed to log at 5-minute intervals for a period of 5 months (mid-December to early-June). Thermal comfort questionnaires were also distributed to children throughout the monitoring period. A total of 45,000 temperature readings corresponding to assumed occupied hours and approximately 2000 thermal sensation votes and clothing insulation values are used in the analysis. Results indicate that assumed occupancy schedules may differ to real use, leading to overestimation of time when indoor environmental parameters are outside recommended ranges. Children’s clothing insulation was found to be lower than assumed in standards in both winter and summer. Omitting to account for such differences may lead to misinterpretation of indoor environment assessments and design solutions.

School buildings

Thermal comfort

Clothing insulation


Indoor environment quality


Despoina Teli

Chalmers, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Building Services Engineering

University of Southampton

Jan-Olof Dalenbäck

Chalmers, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Building Services Engineering

Cold Climate HVAC 2018. CCC 2018. Springer Proceedings in Energy


9th International Cold Climate Conference (HVAC)
Kiruna, Sweden,

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Areas of Advance

Building Futures (2010-2018)


Subject Categories

Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified

Building Technologies



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