Long-range electron and excitation energy transfer in donor-bridge-acceptor systems
Journal article, 2008
Donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) systems, either as supermolecules or on surfaces, have been extensively studied with respect to long-range electron (ET) and excitation energy (EET) transfer. In more recent years, the main research objective has been to develop knowledge on how to construct molecular-based devices, with predetermined electron transfer properties, intended for application in electronics and photovoltaics. At present, such construction is in general hampered for several reasons. Most importantly, the property of a D-B-A system is not a simple linear combination of properties of the individual components, but depends on the specific building blocks and how they are assembled. An important example is the ability of the bridge to support the intended transfer process. The mediation of the transfer is characterized by an attenuation factor, beta, often viewed as a bridge specific constant but which also depends on the donor and the acceptor, i.e. the same bridge can either be poorly or strongly conducting depending oil the donor and acceptor. This review gives an account of the experimental exploration of the attenuation factor beta in a series of bis(porphyrin) systems covalently linked by bridges of the oligo(phenyleneethynylene) (OPE) type. Attenuation factors for ET as well as for both singlet and triplet EET are discussed. A report is also given on the dependence of the transfer efficiency on the energy-gap between the donor and bridge states relevant for the specific transfer process. The experimental variation of beta with varying donor and acceptor components is shown fora range of conjugated bridges by representative examples from the literature. The theoretical rationalization for the observed variation is briefly discussed. Based on the Gamow tunneling model, the observed variations in beta-values with varying donors and acceptors for the same bridges is simulated Successfully simultaneously as the observed energy-gap dependence is modelled. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.