In vitro and in vivo response to nanotopographically-modified surfaces of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and polycaprolactone
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2006
Colloidal lithography and embossing master are new techniques of producing nanotopography, which have been recently applied to improve tissue response to biomaterials by modifying the surface topography on a nano-scale dimension. A natural polyester (Biopol™), 8% 3-hydroxyvalerate-component (D400G) and a conventional biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) were studied, both nanostructured and native forms, in vitro and in vivo. Nanopits (100-nm deep, 120-nm diameter) on the D400G surface were produced by the embossing master technique (Nano-D400G), while nanocylinders (160-nm height, 100-nm diameter) on the PCL surface were made by the colloidal lithography technique (Nano-PCL). L929 fibroblasts were seeded on polyesters, and cell proliferation, cytotoxic effect, synthetic and cytokine production were assessed after 72 h and 7 days. Then, under general anesthesia, 3 Sprague-Dawley rats received dorsal subcutaneous implants of nanostructured and native polyesters. At 1, 4 and 12 weeks the animals were pharmacologically euthanized and implants with surrounding tissue studied histologically and histomorphometrically. In vitro results showed significant differences between D400G and PCL in Interleukin-6 production at 72 h. At 7 days, significant (P < 0.05) differences were found in Interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α release for Nano-PCL when compared to Nano-D400G, and for PCL in comparison with D400G. In vivo results indicated that Nano-D400G implants produced a greater extent of inflammatory tissue than Nano-PCL at 4 weeks. The highest vascular densities were observed for Nano-PCL at 4 and 12 weeks. Chemical and topographical factors seem to be responsible for the different behaviour, and from the obtained results a prevalence of chemistry on in vitro data and nanotopography on soft tissue response in vivo are hypothesized, although more detailed investigations are necessary in this field.