The New Paradigm for Industrial Practices - Total Quality Management
Rapport, 1994

Various concepts have been used to describe the new paradigm for industrial practices that has evolved in the 1990s. A Japanese version has been called TQC (total quality control),CWQC (company wide quality control) or Toyota management system. This approach was later transferred to the West and described by concepts such as "lean production", "innovation-mediated production" or, maybe the most commonly used term, TQM (total quality management). TQM consists essentially of systematic management principles that make the best use of all resources. The key in the new paradigm is that the potentials of all employees should be used to achieve demanding goals, set by a committed top leadership, and built on customer requirements. These demanding goals, in turn, require changes in organizational and reward principles. The model of TQM presented in this paper has been derived from a review of literature, definitions used by the quality awards, and by empirical data from a number of companies in the USA, Europe and Japan (ABB, Motorola, Pitney Bowes, Rank Xerox, Toyota and Xerox). The aim has been to integrate the common aspects from literature and what is present in the front line companies in 1994.The model that was created was developed through the use of an affinity diagram. Six categories were found: Customer focus, Leadership, Total approach, Continuous learning, Process orientation and Standardization for creativity.



process orientation

standardization for creativity

visible leadership


total approach


continuous learning

customer focus


Sverker Alänge

Chalmers, Institutionen för industriell organisation och ekonomi


Annan maskinteknik

CIM-working papers - Department of Industrial Management, Chalmers University of Technology: WP 1994-01

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