Modelling of sound propagation to three-dimensional urban courtyards using the extended fourier PSTD method
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2011
Noise from road traffic propagates to acoustically shielded areas as roadside courtyard by multiple reflection and diffraction paths in a complex three-dimensional (3D) environment. The computation of noise levels and assessment of candidate noise mitigation measures for these areas has up to now been based upon two-dimensional (2D) geometrical assumptions. Here, a recently developed efficient wave-based method, the extended Fourier pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) method, is used to investigate the necessity of a 3D model. For frequencies up to 500 Hz and low traffic velocities of 30 km/h and 50 km/h, a road traffic noise configuration of an urban street canyon with or without cross streets and a closed roadside courtyard is compared to the 2D configuration as studied previously. It can be concluded that the contribution of distant sources is overpredicted by the 20 configuration. As noise mitigation measures, additional facade absorption, facade screens and roof screens have been studied. Results show that the 2D configuration underpredicts the effect of facade mitigation measures, by maximum 1.5 dB(A) for the absorption case and 4.4 dB(A) for the screens case. The effect of roof screens is overpredicted up to 1.7 dB(A). Given these deviations and the found deviations between the 3D configurations of street canyon with and without cross streets, the need for a 3D model can be concluded to be strongly configuration dependent. The 3D model is finally used to investigate the effect of a facade opening to the courtyard, which could lead to up to 10 dB(A) higher noise levels as compared to the noise propagating over the roof level and may prohibit the use of these courtyards as quiet areas. Absorption in the facade opening can significantly limit this negative effect.
Fourier pseudospectral method
Quiet urban areas
Incoherent line source
road traffic noise