The Characteristics of Sleepiness During Real Driving at Night - A Study of Driving Performance, Physiology and Subjective Experience
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2011

Study Objectives: Most studies of sleepy driving have been carried out in driving simulators. A few studies of real driving are available, but these have used only a few sleepiness indicators. The purpose of the present study was to characterize sleepiness in several indicators during real driving at night, compared with daytime driving. Design: Participants drove 55 km (at 90km/h) on a 9-m-wide rural highway in southern Sweden. Daytime driving started at 09: 00 or 11: 00 (2 groups) and night driving at 01: 00 or 03: 00 (balanced design). Setting: Instrumented car on a real road in normal traffic. Participants: Eighteen participants drawn from the local driving license register. Interventions: Daytime and nighttime drives. Measurement and Results: The vehicle was an instrumented car with video monitoring of the edge of the road and recording of the lateral position and speed. Electroencephalography and electrooculography were recorded, together with ratings of sleepiness every 5 minutes. Pronounced effects of night driving were seen for subjective sleepiness, electroencephalographic indicators of sleepiness, blink duration, and speed. Also, time on task showed significant effects for subjective sleepiness, blink duration, lane position, and speed. Sleepiness was highest toward the end of the nighttime drive. Night driving caused a leftward shift in lateral position and a reduction of speed. The latter two findings, as well as the overall pattern of sleepiness indicators, provide new insights into the effects of night driving. Conclusion: Night driving is associated with high levels of subjective, electrophysiologic, and behavioral sleepiness.

professional drivers

accident risk


driver sleepiness

haul trucking


Sleep loss

prolonged wakefulness








David Sandberg

Chalmers, Tillämpad mekanik, Fordonsteknik och autonoma system

A. Anund

C. Fors

G. Kecklund

Stockholms universitet

J. G. Karlsson

Autoliv AB

Mattias Wahde

Chalmers, Tillämpad mekanik, Fordonsteknik och autonoma system

T. Åkerstedt

Stockholms universitet

Karolinska Institutet


0161-8105 (ISSN)

Vol. 34 10 1317-1325


Medicinsk laboratorie- och mätteknik



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