Adult and child pedestrian head impact condition as a function of vehicle front end geometry
Paper i proceeding, 2011

This study investigates head impact conditions for different vehicle types for both adult and child pedestrians in terms of head impact point (Wrap Around Distance: WAD), head relative velocity and impact angle. A simulation matrix is established using four parameters: vehicle model, pedestrian size, pedestrian gait and collision speed. A total of five vehicle types Super Mini Car (SMC), Small Family Car (SFC), Large Family Car (LFC), Multi Purpose Vehicle (MPV) and Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) are selected to consider different shapes and sizes of vehicles. Two mathematical models of the pedestrian, first a 50th male pedestrian and second a 6 year old child pedestrian, are used in the MADYMO environment. Seven pedestrian gaits (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, front and rear) are determined based on typical pedestrian accidents. In order to simulate a large range of impact conditions, four impact speeds (30km/h, 40km/h, 50km/h and 60km/h) are considered for each pedestrian position and vehicle type. The results indicate that the head impact velocity, impact angle and head impact point is influenced by vehicle front geometry. It is obvious that pedestrian position and vehicle travel speed strongly influence head impact conditions as well. The results of this study suggest that head impact conditions should be considered in regulation test procedures involving the front of different passenger vehicles.

Crash simulation

Vehicle front geometry

Impact speed


Pedestrian gait


Yong Peng

Deck Caroline

Jikuang Yang

Chalmers, Tillämpad mekanik, Fordonssäkerhet

Dominique Cesari

Remy Willinger

International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact, September 14-16,2011, Krakow, Poland






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