Finite element analysis of kinematic behaviour and injuries to pedestrians in vehicle collisions
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2012

In vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions, the characteristics of a vehicle's frontal shape and structural stiffness have a significant influence on the kinematics and injury risk of the pedestrian's body regions. In the present study, the kinematic behaviour and injury risk of the pedestrians were investigated in collisions against vehicles with different frontal shapes. The THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) pedestrian finite element (FE) model was used and impacted by three different types of vehicle FE models (passenger car, one-box vehicle and sport-utility vehicle [SUV]) representing the different frontal shapes at 40 km/h. In the simulation with the passenger car-to-pedestrian impact, the pedestrian wrapped around the hood, and the resulting bending moment of the lower extremity and head injury criterion (HIC) value were high. In the simulation with the one-box vehicle-to-pedestrian impact, the pedestrian's upper torso was directly hit by the front end of the vehicle. The pelvis and chest had contact with the stiff vehicle frontal panel, resulting in a high stress being observed on the rib cage. In the simulation with the SUV-to-pedestrian impact, the force of the pelvis was high due to the contact with the vehicle hood's leading edge. The results indicated that the frontal shape of the vehicle has a large effect on the pedestrian kinematic behaviour, including the impact velocity of the pelvis, chest, and head against the vehicle. Moreover, the stiffness of the vehicle structure can affect the deformation mode of the human body segments, such as the lower extremities and the rib cage. The injury predictions for each body region from the FE analyses agreed with observations from pedestrian accidents involving a car, one-box vehicle and SUV, respectively.

Pedestrian accident

finite element analysis

vehicle type

injury body region


Y. Han

Hunan University

Nagoya University

Jikuang Yang

Chalmers, Tillämpad mekanik, Fordonssäkerhet

K. Nishimoto

Nagoya University

K. Mizuno

Nagoya University

Y. Matsui

National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory

D. Nakane

DENSO Corporation

S. Wanami

DENSO Corporation

M. Hitosugi

Dokkyo Medical University

International Journal of Crashworthiness

1358-8265 (ISSN) 1573-8965 (eISSN)

Vol. 17 141-152