Time-related ergonomics evaluation for DHMs: a literature review
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2010

Ergonomics problems in production systems are of a multi-causal nature. It has been established in ergonomics literature that time-related factors, including activity duration, repetitiveness, work-rest distribution and muscle reactions to dynamic loads, can influence the occurrence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). In recent years, ergonomic practices have evolved to include the use of digital human models (DHMs) in virtual workstations, resulting in more cost-efficient and proactive evaluations. However, the ergonomic tools provided in DHMs often fail to consider time-related ergonomic factors. This literature review compiles and examines time-related ergonomics terms for the benefit of introducing such concepts into DHMs. The influence of time-scale perspectives and ambiguities regarding how terms have been used are also discussed. Developers of DHMs can benefit immensely from a literary overview of how to consider time-related factors of physical workload. Likewise, the scientific community can benefit from the identification of ambiguities and gaps in ergonomics research.

manufacturing ergonomics

proactive ergonomics

time aspects

ergonomics evaluation


human factors

cumulative loading


ergonomics simulation

digital human modelling

musculoskeletal disorders

dynamic evaluation


Cecilia Berlin

Chalmers, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling, Produktionssystem

Tara Kajaks

International Journal of Human Factors Modelling and Simulation

1742-5549 (ISSN)

Vol. 1 356-379


Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi

Annan data- och informationsvetenskap

Annan maskinteknik