The effect of oxygen and volatile combustibles on the sulphation of gaseous KCl
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2013

Sulphur/sulphate containing additives, such as elemental sulphur (S) and ammonium sulphate (NH4)(2)SO4), can be used for sulphation of KCl during biomass combustion. These additives convert KCl to an alkali sulphate and a more efficient sulphation is normally achieved for ammonium sulphate compared to sulphur. The presence of SO3 is thus of greater importance than that of SO2. Oxygen and volatile combustibles could also have an effect on the sulphation of gaseous KCl. This paper is based on results obtained during co-combustion of wood chips and straw pellets in a 12 MW circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. Ammonium sulphate was injected at three positions in the boiler i.e. in the upper part of the combustion chamber, in the cyclone inlet, and in the cyclone. The sulphation of KCl was investigated at three air excess ratios (lambda = 1.1, 1.2 and 1.4). Several measurement tools were applied including IACM (on-line measurements of gaseous alkali chlorides), deposit probes (chemical composition in deposits collected) and gas analysis. The position for injection of ammonium sulphate had a great impact on the sulphation efficiency for gaseous KCl at the different air excess ratios. There was also an effect of oxygen on the sulphation efficiency when injecting ammonium sulphate in the cyclone. Less gaseous KCl was reduced during air excess ratio lambda = 1.1 compared to the higher air excess ratios. The optimal position and conditions for injection of ammonium sulphate were identified by measuring KCl with IACM. A correlation was observed between the sulphation of gaseous KCl and reduced chlorine content in the deposits. The experimental observations were evaluated using a detailed reaction mechanism. It was used to model the effect of volatile combustibles on the sulphation of gaseous MCI by SO3. The calculations supported the proposition that the presence of combustibles at the position of SO3 injection (i.e. AS) causes reduction of SO3 to SO2.


laminar-flow reactor





biomass combustion





part 1



Combustion of biomass

Ammonium sulphate


Håkan Kassman

Chalmers, Energi och miljö, Energiteknik

Fredrik Normann

Chalmers, Energi och miljö, Energiteknik

Lars-Erik Åmand

Chalmers, Energi och miljö, Energiteknik

Combustion and Flame

0010-2180 (ISSN)

Vol. 160 2231-2241