The value of excess heat-profitability and CO2 balances
Kapitel i bok, 2012
Biorefineries produce many different types of products for a wide range of markets with specific characteristics. In this chapter we will discuss the implication of the availability of markets for one particular product, heat. Heat may be regarded either as waste or as a co-product of the process and the usability of heat depends largely on two issues: the temperature of the heat, and the opportunities for integrating the biorefinery with activities demanding heat,
e.g. district heating systems or heat-demanding industrial processes. The aim of the present chapter is to present and discuss the importance and limitations of integration with district heating systems (DH-systems) for the profitability and CO2 mitigation potential of biorefineries.