Greenhouse gas emissions of packaged fluid milk production in Tehran
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2014

The main purpose of this study was first to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of packaged fluid milk through life cycle assessment (LCA), using regional data in Tehran, and then to identify opportunities for lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The system boundary for cradle to gate assessment was divided into three life cycle stages: agronomy, animal farm and dairy plant, and data were gathered from multiple sources, e.g. questionnaire, published studies and dairy plant database in 2011–2012. Through the study, the IPCC 2006 methodology and the International Dairy Federation (IDF) Carbon Footprint Guide were used to calculate the CF of milk. The functional unit (FU) was one litre of pasteurized milk packaged in a plastic pouch. The average CF for 1 kg of fat-protein corrected milk (FPCM) at the farm gate was 1.57 kg CO2-eq, however, for the FU, it was 1.73 kg CO2-eq. The main contributors to overall CF of milk product were enteric methane 30%, electricity 14%, diesel 8.9%, manure emissions 8.8% and transportations 8.6%. The average CF of FPCM at farm gate was higher than the previous European reports, but lower than the previous estimate of 3–5 kg CO2-eq/kg milk. Developing the infrastructure to utilize renewable energy sources, such as solar energy, may be a solution for high share of energy-related emissions from the dairy sector. We call for more research on CF and other environmental impacts like eutrophication, and impacts from water consumption in different regions of the country both in traditional and industrial dairy farm systems.

Carbon footprint

Life cycle assessment (LCA)

Dairy product

Milk processing




Ali Daneshi

Tarbiat Modares University

Abbas Esmaili-sari

Tarbiat Modares University

Mohammad Daneshi

Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch

Research and Development Department

Henrikke Baumann

Chalmers, Energi och miljö, Environmental Systems Analysis

Journal of Cleaner Production

0959-6526 (ISSN)

Vol. 80 150-158


Hållbar utveckling


Miljö- och naturvårdsvetenskap

Annan naturresursteknik

Lantbruksvetenskap, skogsbruk och fiske

Miljöanalys och bygginformationsteknik



Mer information