Energy Transfer Diagram for Site-Wide Analysis and Application to a Kraft Pulp Mill
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2015

In industrial processes, heat is transferred from the heating utilities to the environment or converted to another form of energy. Process operations and heat exchanges decrease the level of energy quality; i.e., heat is cascaded to lower temperatures. The energy transfer diagram (ETD), which has been recently developed, indicates the flow rate of heat transferred from the utilities to the environment through each process operation and each heat exchanger as a function of temperature. This tool can be used to identify heat savings projects by modification of the process units and the heat-exchanger network (HEN). However, in a larger sense the diagram indicates the flow rate of energy transferred through any system as a function of the level of energy quality, and can be used for the analysis of a complete plant, including the thermal, chemical, mechanical and electrical transformations. This paper presents new developments to consider energy conversion with the ETD, the application to an entire kraft pulp mill, including the HEN, the process operations, and the utility system, and results from site-wide analysis.

energy efficiency


kraft pulping process


process integration

heat-exchanger network


Jean-Christophe Bonhivers

École Polytechnique de Montréal

Elin Svensson

Chalmers, Energi och miljö, Industriella energisystem och tekniker

Mikhail Sorin

Université de Sherbrooke

Thore Berntsson

Chalmers, Energi och miljö, Industriella energisystem och tekniker

Paul Stuart

École Polytechnique de Montréal

Applied Thermal Engineering

1359-4311 (ISSN)

Vol. 75 547-560


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