Silicon Integrated HBV Frequency Multipliers for THz Applications
Doktorsavhandling, 2015

This thesis deals with integrated varactor diode circuits for terahertz (THz) applications. In particular hybrid, monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), and heterogeneous integration are explored for frequency multiplier applications. Each of these techniques addresses different requirements for high power and high frequency electronic circuits. Namely: high thermal conductivity (κ) of substrates for enhanced power capabilities, process reproducibility of small diode and circuit component dimensions, and finally machining properties for enhanced robustness and functionality. A fixed tuned 175 GHz frequency quintupler with a flip-chip assembled Heterostructure Barrier Varactor (HBV) diode was demonstrated. The microstrip circuit was fabricated on AlN substrate - a material with high thermal conductivity. The device delivers 60 mW of output power corresponding to 6.3 % conversion efficiency. The heteregeneous integration of In0.53Ga0.47As/Al0.48Ga0.52As HBV material structure onto silicon and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate was done in a process employing low temperature plasma assisted wafer bonding. Using this technology a frequency tripler (×3) for W-band (75-110 GHz) and frequency quintupler (×5) for 474 GHz were fabricated. The performance of the W-band frequency tripler delivering more than 180 mW of output power is comparable to the identical design in InP MMIC technology. The 474 GHz frequency quintupler circuit was fabricated on SOI substrate, hence robust and unform 20 μm thick circuits were achieved. This multiplier delivers 2.8 mW of output power, and it represents the highest frequency of operation for HBV-based frequency multipliers. By enabling the integration of compound semiconductors onto a silicon substrate, an increase in the performance and functionality of the device is achieved. Moreover, due to good thermal and mechanical properties of silicon, as well as established process technology for this material, a new generation of THz monolithic integrated circuits is possible.

frequency multipliers

Heterostrucutre Barrier Varactors (HBVs)

THz sources

wafer bonding.

integrated circuits

heterogeneous integration

Compund semiconductors

epitaxial transfer


Kollektorn, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience - MC2
Opponent: Dr. Imran Mehdi, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasanda, CA, USA


Aleksandra Malko

Chalmers, Mikroteknologi och nanovetenskap (MC2), Terahertz- och millimetervågsteknik

Silicon Integrated InGaAs/InAlAs/AlAs HBV Frequency Tripler

IEEE Electron Device Letters,; Vol. 34(2013)p. 843 - 845

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

Thermal Analysis of III-V HBV Diode Structures on InP, GaAs, Silicon and Diamond Substrates

International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves,; (2013)p. 1-2

Paper i proceeding

A 175 GHz HBV Frequency Quintupler With 60 mW Output Power

IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters,; Vol. 22(2012)p. 76-78

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

High Efficiency and Broad-Band Operation of Monolithically Integrated W-Band HBV Frequency Tripler

24th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, IPRM 2012, Univeristy of Califorania, Santa Barbara, 27 - 30 August 2012,; (2012)p. 92-94

Paper i proceeding

A 474 GHz HBV Frequency Quintupler Integrated on a 20 µm Thick Silicon Substrate

IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology,; Vol. 5(2015)p. 85-91

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift


Informations- och kommunikationsteknik




Annan elektroteknik och elektronik



Technical report MC2 - Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology: 297

Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola. Ny serie: 3826

Kollektorn, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience - MC2

Opponent: Dr. Imran Mehdi, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasanda, CA, USA