CFD-3D Analysis of a Light Duty Dual Fuel (Diesel/Natural Gas) Combustion Engine
Paper i proceeding, 2014
Nowadays, the most critical issues concerning internal combustion engines are the reduction of the pollutant emissions, in particular of CO2, and the replacement of fossil fuels with renewable sources. An interesting proposition for Diesel engines is the Dual Fuel (DF) combustion, consisting in the ignition of a premixed charge of gaseous fuel (typically natural gas) by means of a pilot injection of Diesel Fuel. Dual fuel combustion is a quite complex process to model, since it includes the injection of liquid fuel, superimposed with a premixed combustion. However, CFD simulation is fundamental to address a number of practical issues, such as the setting of the liquid injection parameters and of the gaseous fuel metering, as well as to get the maximum benefit from the DF technique. In this paper, a customized version of the KIVA-3V Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code was adopted to analyze the combustion process of a 4-cylinder, 2.8 l, turbocharged HSDI Diesel engine, operating in both Diesel and DF (Diesel and Natural Gas) modes. Starting from a previously validated diesel combustion model, a natural gas combustion model was implemented and added to simulate the DF operations. Available engine test data were used for validation of the diesel-only operation regimes. Using the calibrated model, the influence of the premixed charge composition was investigated, along with the effect of the diesel injection advance angle, at a few characteristic operating conditions. An optimum setting was eventually found, allowing the DF engine to deliver the same brake power of the original Diesel unit, yielding the same maximum in-cylinder pressure.It was found that DF combustion is soot-less, yields a strong reduction of CO and CO2, but also an increase of NO.