Whole-grain and blood lipid changes in apparently healthy adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies1-3
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2015

Background: Whole grains are recognized for their potential role in preventing cardiovascular diseases; however, results from randomized controlled studies on blood lipids are inconsistent, potentially because of compositional differences between individual grain types for some nutrients, including dietary fiber. Objective: Using a meta-analytic approach, we assessed the effect of whole-grain compared with non-whole-grain foods on changes in total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Design: We conducted a systematic literature search in selected databases. Studies were included if they were randomized controlled comparisons between whole-grain foods and a non-whole-grain control in adults. A total of 6069 articles were screened for eligibility, and data were extracted from 24 studies. Weighted mean differences were calculated, and meta-regression analyses were performed for wholegrain dose, study duration, and baseline TC concentration. Results: Overall, whole-grain intake lowered LDL cholesterol (weighted difference: 20.09 mmol/L; 95% CI: 20.15, 20.03 mmol/L; P , 0.01) and TC (weighted difference: 20.12 mmol/L; 95% CI: 20.19, 20.05 mmol/L; P , 0.001) compared with the control.Whole-grain oat had the greatest effect on TC (weighted difference: 20.17 mmol/L; 95% CI: 20.10, 20.25 mmol/L; P , 0.001). No effect of whole-grain foods on HDL cholesterol was seen, whereas whole-grain foods tended to lower triglycerides compared with the control (weighted difference: 20.04 mmol/L; 95% CI: 20.08, 0.01; P = 0.10). No association was found between whole-grain dose or baseline TC concentration and any of the outcomes, whereas study duration was positively associated with changes in TC and LDL cholesterol. Conclusions: Consumption of whole-grain diets lowers LDL cholesterol and TC, but not HDL cholesterol or triglycerides, compared with consumption of non-whole-grain control diets. Whole-grain oat appears to be the most effective whole grain for lowering cholesterol.



Cardiovascular disease

Total cholesterol

LDL cholesterol

Dietary fiber

Whole grains


P.L.B. Hollænder

Köbenhavns Universitet

Alastair Ross

Chalmers, Biologi och bioteknik, Livsmedelsvetenskap

M. Kristensen

Köbenhavns Universitet

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

0002-9165 (ISSN)

Vol. 102 556-572