Kapitel i bok, 2016
All rights are reserved. Anthropogenic noise is an issue that originates both from ships and the infrastructure that supports them, i.e., ports. Noise pollution is a known issue that can affect both humans and marine organisms. Humans are affected when ports, which are often active throughout the day and night, are located near residential areas in a city. Marine organisms are affected when noise from various activities of the shipping industry is transferred into the water. Four main sources of anthropogenic noise are generally recognised: underwater explosions, seismic explorations with high-energy systems, active sonar systems and shipping. The primary concerns regarding organisms exposed to elevated levels of anthropogenic noise include permanent or temporary hearing loss, the masking of a desired signal, and behavioural changes in response to a sound. Noise generated in port areas can affect both the staff working at the port and the neighbouring areas. Several negative health effects of noise pollution have been identified, for example, hearing and cardio-vascular disturbances, increased blood pressure, annoyance and sleep disturbance.