Challenges in top-down and bottom-up soft-linking: Lessons from linking a Swedish energy system model with a CGE model
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2017

This paper proposes and discusses a soft-linking procedure between a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model and an energy system model with the aim to improve national energy policy decision-making. Significant positive and negative experiences are communicated. Specifically, the process of soft-linking the EMEC and TIMES-Sweden models is presented, and unlike previous work we rely on the use of multiple direction-specific connection points. Moreover, the proposed soft-linking methodology is applied in the context of a climate policy scenario for Sweden. The results display a partly new description of the Swedish economy, which when soft-linking, generates lower CO2-emissions in the reference scenario due to a decline in industrial energy demand. These findings point at the importance of linking bottom-up and top-down models when assessing national energy and climate policies.

Climate and energy policy


CGE models

Energy system models




Anna Cecilia Krook Riekkola

Luleå tekniska universitet

Charlotte Berg

National Institute of Economic Research

Erik Ahlgren

Chalmers, Energi och miljö, Energiteknik

Patrik Söderholm

Luleå tekniska universitet


0360-5442 (ISSN)

Vol. 141 803-817