Membrane Deformation Induces Clustering of Norovirus Bound to Glycosphingolipids in a Supported Cell-Membrane Mimic
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2018
Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy have been used to investigate binding of norovirus-like particles (noroVLPs) to a supported (phospho)lipid bilayer (SLB) containing a few percent of H or B type 1 glycosphingolipid (GSL) receptors. Although neither of these GSLs spontaneously form domains, noroVLPs were observed to form micron-sized clusters containing typically up to about 30 VLP copies, especially for B type 1, which is a higher-affinity receptor. This novel finding is explained by proposing a model implying that VLP-induced membrane deformation promotes VLP clustering, a hypothesis that was further supported by observing that functionalized gold nanoparticles were able to locally induce SLB deformation. Because similar effects are likely possible also at cellular membranes, our findings are interesting beyond a pure biophysicochemical perspective as they shed new light on what may happen during receptor-mediated uptake of viruses as well as nanocarriers in drug delivery.