How can consumables be made more resource efficient? Environmental and resource assessment of measures
Based on the review of cases and the typology of RE measures, the following RE measures were found applicable to consumables: reduce losses in production, reduce material use in products, change material in product, use effectively, shift to multiple-use products, reduce use of auxiliary materials and energy, recycle, digest anaerobically or compost, recover energy, and landfill. These are more measures which could potentially be applied to consumables than commonly discussed in the circular economy literature. Moreover, the identified measures among the cases all showed potential to improve resource efficiency. For the measure shift to multiple-use product, it was important for the product to last enough times to outweigh the environmental impact from production. In addition, an efficient maintenance system using electricity with low fossil content was an important element for achieving RE. When changing the material in a product, a risk of burden shifting between environmental impact categories was identified. Moreover, the measures applied to the incontinence products were found to be widely combinable, which could ultimately lead to greater resource efficiency. Others findings were that some measures are interdependent and that many, if not most, are dependent on design.
Life Cycle Assessment
Chalmers, Teknikens ekonomi och organisation, Miljösystemanalys
Willskytt, S., and Tillman, A-M., 2018. Resource efficiency of consumables - Life cycle assessment of incontinence products. Submitted to scientific journal (currently under review)
Böckin, D., Willskytt, S., André, H., Tillman, A-M. and Ljunggren Söderman, M., 2018. What makes resource efficiency measures environmentally beneficial? - A systematic review of assessment studies. Submitted to scientific journal (currently under review).
Mistra REES – Resource-Efficient and Effective Solutions
Stiftelsen för miljöstrategisk forskning (Mistra), 2016-01-01 -- 2019-12-31.
Licentiate thesis, report - Department of Technology of Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology: L2018:100
Chalmers tekniska högskola
Vasa 3, Veras Sandbergs Allé 8
Opponent: Amir Rashid, KTH