A Partial Differential Equation Approach to Inhalation Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2018
CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. The heterogeneous nature of the lungs and the range of processes affecting pulmonary drug disposition make prediction of inhaled drugs challenging. These predictions are critical, as the local exposure cannot be measured and current inhalation physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models do not capture all necessary features. Utilizing partial differential equations, we present an inhalation PBPK model to describe the heterogeneity in both lung physiology and particle size. The model mechanistically describes important processes, such as deposition, mucociliary clearance, and dissolution. In addition, simplifications are introduced to reduce computational cost without loss of accuracy. Three case studies exemplify how the model can enhance our understanding of pulmonary drug disposition. Specific findings include that most small airways can be targeted by inhalation, and overdosing may eradicate the advantage of inhalation. The presented model can guide the design of inhaled molecules, formulations, as well as clinical trials, providing opportunities to explore regional targeting.