Measuring performance on the Healthcare Access and Quality Index for 195 countries and territories and selected subnational locations: A systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2018

Background: A key component of achieving universal health coverage is ensuring that all populations have access to quality health care. Examining where gains have occurred or progress has faltered across and within countries is crucial to guiding decisions and strategies for future improvement. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) to assess personal health-care access and quality with the Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) Index for 195 countries and territories, as well as subnational locations in seven countries, from 1990 to 2016. Methods Drawing from established methods and updated estimates from GBD 2016, we used 32 causes from which death should not occur in the presence of effective care to approximate personal health-care access and quality by location and over time. To better isolate potential effects of personal health-care access and quality from underlying risk factor patterns, we risk-standardised cause-specific deaths due to non-cancers by location-year, replacing the local joint exposure of environmental and behavioural risks with the global level of exposure. Supported by the expansion of cancer registry data in GBD 2016, we used mortality-to-incidence ratios for cancers instead of risk-standardised death rates to provide a stronger signal of the effects of personal health care and access on cancer survival. We transformed each cause to a scale of 0-100, with 0 as the first percentile (worst) observed between 1990 and 2016, and 100 as the 99th percentile (best); we set these thresholds at the country level, and then applied them to subnational locations. We applied a principal components analysis to construct the HAQ Index using all scaled cause values, providing an overall score of 0-100 of personal health-care access and quality by location over time. We then compared HAQ Index levels and trends by quintiles on the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary measure of overall development. As derived from the broader GBD study and other data sources, we examined relationships between national HAQ Index scores and potential correlates of performance, such as total health spending per capita. Findings In 2016, HAQ Index performance spanned from a high of 97·1 (95% UI 95·8-98·1) in Iceland, followed by 96·6 (94·9-97·9) in Norway and 96·1 (94·5-97·3) in the Netherlands, to values as low as 18·6 (13·1-24·4) in the Central African Republic, 19·0 (14·3-23·7) in Somalia, and 23·4 (20·2-26·8) in Guinea-Bissau. The pace of progress achieved between 1990 and 2016 varied, with markedly faster improvements occurring between 2000 and 2016 for many countries in sub-Saharan Africa and southeast Asia, whereas several countries in Latin America and elsewhere saw progress stagnate after experiencing considerable advances in the HAQ Index between 1990 and 2000. Striking subnational disparities emerged in personal health-care access and quality, with China and India having particularly large gaps between locations with the highest and lowest scores in 2016. In China, performance ranged from 91·5 (89·1-93·6) in Beijing to 48·0 (43·4-53·2) in Tibet (a 43·5-point difference), while India saw a 30·8-point disparity, from 64·8 (59·6-68·8) in Goa to 34·0 (30·3-38·1) in Assam. Japan recorded the smallest range in subnational HAQ performance in 2016 (a 4·8-point difference), whereas differences between subnational locations with the highest and lowest HAQ Index values were more than two times as high for the USA and three times as high for England. State-level gaps in the HAQ Index in Mexico somewhat narrowed from 1990 to 2016 (from a 20·9-point to 17·0-point difference), whereas in Brazil, disparities slightly increased across states during this time (a 17·2-point to 20·4-point difference). Performance on the HAQ Index showed strong linkages to overall development, with high and high-middle SDI countries generally having higher scores and faster gains for non-communicable diseases. Nonetheless, countries across the development spectrum saw substantial gains in some key health service areas from 2000 to 2016, most notably vaccine-preventable diseases. Overall, national performance on the HAQ Index was positively associated with higher levels of total health spending per capita, as well as health systems inputs, but these relationships were quite heterogeneous, particularly among low-to-middle SDI countries. Interpretation GBD 2016 provides a more detailed understanding of past success and current challenges in improving personal health-care access and quality worldwide. Despite substantial gains since 2000, many low-SDI and middle- SDI countries face considerable challenges unless heightened policy action and investments focus on advancing access to and quality of health care across key health services, especially non-communicable diseases. Stagnating or minimal improvements experienced by several low-middle to high-middle SDI countries could reflect the complexities of re-orienting both primary and secondary health-care services beyond the more limited foci of the Millennium Development Goals. Alongside initiatives to strengthen public health programmes, the pursuit of universal health coverage hinges upon improving both access and quality worldwide, and thus requires adopting a more comprehensive view-and subsequent provision-of quality health care for all populations.

Författare

Nancy Fullman

University of Washington

Jamal Yearwood

University of Washington

Solomon M. Abay

Addis Ababa University

Cristiana Abbafati

Sapienza, Università di Roma

Foad Abd-Allah

Cairo University

Jemal Abdela

Haramaya University

Ahmed Abdelalim

Cairo University

Zegeye Abebe

University of Gondar

Teshome Abuka Abebo

Hawassa University

Victor Aboyans

Hopital Dupuytren

Haftom Niguse Abraha

Mekelle University

Daisy M.X. Abreu

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Laith J. Abu-Raddad

Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar

Akilew Awoke Adane

University of Gondar

Rufus Adesoji Adedoyin

Obafemi Awolowo University

Olatunji Adetokunboh

Obafemi Awolowo University

Tara Ballav Adhikari

Syddansk Universitet

Mohsen Afarideh

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Ashkan Afshin

University of Washington

Gina Agarwal

McMaster University

Dominic Agius

Directorate for Health Information and Research

Anurag Agrawal

Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology

Sutapa Agrawal

Public Health Foundation of India

Aliasghar Ahmad Kiadaliri

Lunds universitet

Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour

High National School of Veterinary Medicine

Mohammed Akibu

Debere Berhan University

Rufus Olusola Akinyemi

University of Ibadan

Tomi F. Akinyemiju

University of Alabama at Birmingham

Nadia Akseer

Hospital for Sick Children University of Toronto

Faris Hasan Al Lami

Baghdad College of Medicine

Fares Alahdab

Mayo Clinic

Ziyad Al-Aly

Washington University in St. Louis

Khurshid Alam

University of Western Australia

Tahiya Alam

University of Washington

Deena Alasfoor

Ministry of Health

Mohammed I. Albittar

Kefyalew Addis Alene

University of Gondar

Ayman Al-Eyadhy

King Saud University

Syed Danish Ali

University of London

Mehran Alijanzadeh

Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

Syed M. Aljunid

University of Kuwait

Ala'a Alkerwi

Luxembourg Institute of Health

François Alla

University of Lorraine

Peter Allebeck

Karolinska Institutet

Christine Allen

University of Washington

Mahmoud A. Alomari

Public Health and Family Medicine

Rajaa Al-Raddadi

King Abdulaziz University

Ubai Alsharif

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin

Khalid A. Altirkawi

King Saud University

Nelson Alvis-Guzman

Universidad de Cartagena

Azmeraw T. Amare

University of Adelaide

Kebede Amenu

Addis Ababa University

Walid Ammar

Ministry of Public Health

Yaw Ampem Amoako

Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital

Nahla Anber

Mansoura University

Catalina Liliana Andrei

Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy

Sofia Androudi

University of Thessaly

Carl Abelardo T. Antonio

University of the Philippines Manila

Valdelaine E.M. Araújo

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Olatunde Aremu

University Department of Public Health and Therapies

Johan Ärnlöv

Karolinska Institutet

Al Artaman

University of Manitoba

Krishna Kumar Aryal

Nepal Health Research Council

Hamid Asayesh

School of Paramedical

Ephrem Tsegay Asfaw

Mekelle University

Solomon Weldegebreal Asgedom

Mekelle University

Rana Jawad Asghar

South Asian Public Health Forum

Mengistu Mitiku Ashebir

Mekelle University

Netsanet Abera Asseffa

Wolaita Sodo University

Tesfay Mehari Atey

Mekelle University

Sachin R. Atre

Centre for Clinical Global Health Education

Madhu S. Atteraya

Keimyung University

Leticia Avila-Burgos

National Institute of Public Health

Euripide Frinel G. Arthur Avokpaho

Institut de Recherche Clinique du Bénin

Ashish Awasthi

Indian Institute of Public Health

Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla

La Trobe University

Animut Alebel Ayalew

Debre Markos University

Henok Tadesse Ayele

McGill University

Rakesh Ayer

University of Tokyo

Tambe Betrand Ayuk

Institute of Medical Research and Plant Medicinal Studies-Cameroon

Peter Azzopardi

Burnet Institute

Natasha Azzopardi-Muscat

Directorate for Health Information and Research

Tesleem Kayode Babalola

University of Lagos

Hamid Badali

Invasive Fungi Research Center

Alaa Badawi

Faculty of Medicine

Maciej Banach

Medical University of Lodz

Amitava Banerjee

University College London (UCL)

Amrit Banstola

Public Health Perspective Nepal

Ryan M. Barber

University of Washington

Miguel A. Barboza

CCSS

Suzanne L. Barker-Collo

University of Auckland

Till Bärnighausen

Harvard School of Public Health

Simon Barquera

National Institute of Public Health

Lope H. Barrero

School of Engineering

Quique Bassat

Universitat de Barcelona

Sanjay Basu

Stanford University

Bernhard T. Baune

University of Adelaide

Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi

Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science

Neeraj Bedi

Jazan University

Ettore Beghi

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri

Masoud Behzadifar

Social Determinants of Health Research Center

Meysam Behzadifar

Lorestan University of Medical Sciences

Bayu Begashaw Bekele

University of Gondar

Abate Bekele Belachew

Mekelle University

Saba Abraham Belay

Tewelde Legesse Health Sciences College

Yihalem Abebe Belay

Debre Markos University

Michelle L. Bell

Yale University

Aminu K. Bello

University of Alberta

Derrick A. Bennett

Nuffield Department of Population Health

James R. Bennett

University of Washington

Isabela M. Bensenor

Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP)

Derbew Fikadu Berhe

Mekelle University

Eduardo Bernabé

King's College London

Robert S. Bernstein

Rollins School of Public Health

Mircea Beuran

Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy

Ashish Bhalla

Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research

Paurvi Bhatt

Medtronic Philanthropy

Soumyadeep Bhaumik

Public Health Foundation of India

Zulfiqar A. Bhutta

Hospital for Sick Children University of Toronto

Belete Biadgo

University of Gondar

Ali Bijani

Health Research Institute

Boris Bikbov

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri

Charles Birungi

University College London (UCL)

Stan Biryukov

University of Washington

Hailemichael Bizuneh

St Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College

Ian W. Bolliger

University of Washington

Kaylin Bolt

University of Washington

Ibrahim R. Bou-Orm

Ministry of Public Health

Kayvan Bozorgmehr

Universitatsklinikum Heidelberg

Oliver Jerome Brady

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Alexandra Brazinova

Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave

Nicholas J.K. Breitborde

Ohio State University

Hermann Brenner

Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ)

Gabrielle Britton

INDICASAT AIP

Traolach S. Brugha

University Of Leicester

Zahid A. Butt

Al Shifa Trust Eye Hospital

Lucero Cahuana-Hurtado

National Institute of Public Health

Ismael Ricardo Campos-Nonato

National Institute of Public Health

Julio Cesar Campuzano

National Institute of Public Health

Josip Car

Nanyang Technological University

Mate Car

Imperial College London

Rosario Cárdenas

Metropolitan Autonomous University

Juan Jesus Carrero

Karolinska Institutet

Felix Carvalho

Faculty of Pharmacy

Carlos A. Castañeda-Orjuela

Instituto Nacional de Salud

Jacqueline Castillo Rivas

Universidad de Costa Rica

Ferrán Catalá-López

Universitat de Valencia

Kelly Cercy

University of Washington

Julian Chalek

University of Washington

Hsing-Yi Chang

National Health Research Institutes

Jung-Chen Chang

College of Medicine

Aparajita Chattopadhyay

International Institute for Population Sciences

Pankaj Chaturvedi

Tata Memorial Hospital

Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang

Gold Coast Health

Vesper Hichilombwe Chisumpa

University of Zambia

Jee-Young J. Choi

Seoul National University

Hanne Christensen

Bispebjerg Hospital

Devasahayam Jesudas Christopher

Christian Medical College

Sheng-Chia Chung

University College London (UCL)

Liliana G. Ciobanu

University of Adelaide

Massimo Cirillo

Universita degli Studi di Salerno

Danny Colombara

University of Washington

Sara Conti

Universita' degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca

Cyrus Cooper

NIHR Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Centre

Leslie Cornaby

University of Washington

Paolo Angelo Cortesi

Research Centre on Public Health

Monica Cortinovis

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri

Alexandre Costa Pereira

University of Sao Paulo

Ewerton Cousin

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)

Michael H. Criqui

University of California

Elizabeth A. Cromwell

University of Washington

Christopher Stephen Crowe

University of Washington

John A. Crump

Dunedin School of Medicine

Alemneh Kabeta Daba

Hawassa University

Berihun Assefa Dachew

University of Gondar

Abel Fekadu Dadi

University of Gondar

Lalit Dandona

University of Washington

Rakhi Dandona

University of Washington

Paul I. Dargan

Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust

Ahmad Daryani

Toxoplasmosis Research Center

Maryam Daryani

Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

Jai Das

Aga Khan University

Siddharth Kumar Das

K G Medical University

José Das Neves

INEB-Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica

Nicole Davis Weaver

University of Washington

Kairat Davletov

Kazakh National Medical University

Barbora De Courten

Monash University

Diego De Leo

Griffith University

Jan-Walter De Neve

Heidelberg Institute of Public Health

Robert P. Dellavalle

Colorado School of Public Health

Gebre Demoz

Addis Ababa University

Kebede Deribe

Addis Ababa University

Don C. Des Jarlais

Mount Sinai Beth Israel

Subhojit Dey

Indian Institute of Public Health

Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne

University of Peradeniya

Meghnath Dhimal

Nepal Health Research Council

Shirin Djalalinia

Undersecretary for Research and Technology

David Teye Doku

University of Cape Coast Ghana

Kate Dolan

University of New South Wales (UNSW)

E. Ray Dorsey

University of Rochester Medical Center

Kadine Priscila Bender Dos Santos

Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina

Kerrie E. Doyle

Australian National University

Tim R. Driscoll

The University of Sydney

Manisha Dubey

International Institute for Population Sciences

Eleonora Dubljanin

Univerzitet u Beogradu

Bruce Bartholow Duncan

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)

Michelle Echko

University of Washington

Dumessa Edessa

Haramaya University

David Edvardsson

La Trobe University

Joshua R. Ehrlich

University of Michigan

Erika Eldrenkamp

University of Washington

Ziad El-Khatib

Karolinska Institutet

Matthias Endres

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin

Aman Yesuf Endries

Arba Minch University

Babak Eshrati

Ministry of Health and Medical Education

Sharareh Eskandarieh

Multiple Sclerosis Research Center

Alireza Esteghamati

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Mahdi Fakhar

School of Medicine

Tamer Farag

University of Washington

Mahbobeh Faramarzi

Babol University of Medical Sciences

Emerito Jose Aquino Faraon

University of the Philippines Manila

André Faro

Federal University of Sergipe

Farshad Farzadfar

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Adesegun Fatusi

Obafemi Awolowo University

Mir Sohail Fazeli

Doctor Evidence

Valery L. Feigin

Auckland University of Technology

Andrea B. Feigl

Harvard School of Public Health

Netsanet Fentahun

Faculty of Public Health

Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad

Karolinska Institutet

Eduarda Fernandes

University of Porto

João C. Fernandes

Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto

Daniel Obadare Fijabi

Brandeis University

Irina Filip

Kaiser Permanente

Florian Fischer

Universität Bielefeld

Christina Fitzmaurice

University of Washington

Abraham D. Flaxman

University of Washington

Luisa Sorio Flor

Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca

Nataliya Foigt

Academy of Medical Science

Kyle J. Foreman

University of Washington

Joseph J. Frostad

University of Washington

Thomas Fürst

Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)

Universität Basel

Neal D. Futran

University of Washington

Emmanuela Gakidou

University of Washington

Silvano Gallus

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri

Ketevan Gambashidze

National Center for Disease Control and Public Health

Amiran Gamkrelidze

National Center for Disease Control and Public Health

Morsaleh Ganji

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Abadi Kahsu Gebre

Mekelle University

Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot

Jimma University

Amanuel Tesfay Gebremedhin

Jimma University

Yalemzewod Assefa Gelaw

University of Gondar

Johanna M. Geleijnse

Wageningen University and Research

Demeke Geremew

University of Gondar

Peter W. Gething

University of Oxford

Reza Ghadimi

Health Research Institute

Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani

Tehran

Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman

Babol University of Medical Sciences

Paramjit Singh Gill

Warwick Medical School

Ababi Zergaw Giref

Addis Ababa University

Maurice Giroud

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Dijon

Melkamu Dedefo Gishu

Haramaya University

Giorgia Giussani

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri

William W. Godwin

University of Washington

Srinivas Goli

Jawaharlal Nehru University

Hector Gomez-Dantes

National Institute of Public Health

Philimon N. Gona

University of Massachusetts Boston

Amador Goodridge

INDICASAT AIP

Sameer Vali Gopalani

Government of the Federated States of Micronesia

Yevgeniy Goryakin

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Alessandra Carvalho Goulart

Hospital Universitario

Ayman Grada

Boston University

Max Griswold

University of Washington

Giuseppe Grosso

Universita degli Studi di Catania

Harish Chander Gugnani

Saint James School of Medicine

Yuming Guo

University of Queensland

Rahul Gupta

West Virginia Bureau for Public Health

Rajeev Gupta

Eternal Heart Care Centre and Research Institute

Tanush Gupta

Montefiore Medical Center

Tarun Gupta

Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

Vipin Gupta

University of Delhi

Juanita A. Haagsma

Erasmus University Medical Center

Vladimir Hachinski

Western University

Nima Hafezi-Nejad

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Gessessew Bugssa Hailu

Mekelle University

Randah Ribhi Hamadeh

Arabian Gulf University

Samer Hamidi

Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University

Graeme J. Hankey

University of Western Australia

Hilda L. Harb

Ministry of Public Health

Heather C. Harewood

Eunice Gibson Polyclinic

Sivadasanpillai Harikrishnan

Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology

Josep Maria Haro

Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu-CIBERSAM

Hamid Yimam Hassen

Mizan Tepi University

Rasmus Havmoeller

Karolinska Institutet

Caitlin Hawley

University of Washington

Simon I. Hay

University of Washington

Jiawei He

University of Washington

Stephen J.C. Hearps

Murdoch Childrens Research Hospital

Mohamed I. Hegazy

Cairo University

Behzad Heibati

Air Pollution Research Center

Mohsen Heidari

Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences

Delia Hendrie

Curtin University

Nathaniel J. Henry

University of Washington

Victor Hugo Herrera Ballesteros

Gorgas Memorial Institute for Studies of Health

Claudiu Herteliu

Academia de Studii Economice din București

Desalegn Tsegaw Hibstu

Hawassa University

Molla Kahssay Hiluf

Samara University

Hans W. Hoek

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Enayatollah Homaie Rad

Guilan University of Medical Sciences

Nobuyuki Horita

Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine

H. Dean Hosgood

Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University

Mostafa Hosseini

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Seyed Reza Hosseini

Health Research Institute

Mihaela Hostiuc

Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy

Sorin Hostiuc

Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy

Damian G. Hoy

Pacific Community

Mohamed Hsairi

Salah Azaiz Institute

Aung Soe Htet

International Relations Division

Guoqing Hu

Central South University

John J. Huang

Yale University

Kim Moesgaard Iburg

Aarhus Universitet

Fachmi Idris

Sriwijaya University

Ehimario Uche Igumbor

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Chad Ikeda

University of Washington

Bogdan Vasile Ileanu

Academia de Studii Economice din București

Olayinka S. Ilesanmi

National Public Health Institute

Kaire Innos

National Institute for Health Development

Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani

Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences

Caleb M.S. Irvine

University of Washington

Farhad Islami

American Cancer Society

Troy A. Jacobs

USAID - Global Health Bureau

Kathryn H. Jacobsen

George Mason University

Nader Jahanmehr

School of Public Health

Rajesh Jain

Jain Hospital MSS

Sudhir Kumar Jain

National Centre For Disease Control Delhi

Mihajlo Jakovljevic

University of Washington

Moti Tolera Jalu

Haramaya University

Amr A. Jamal

King Saud University

Mehdi Javanbakht

University of Aberdeen

Achala Upendra Jayatilleke

Postgraduate Institute of Medicine

Panniyammakal Jeemon

Centre for Control of Chronic Conditions

Ravi Prakash Jha

Banaras Hindu University

Vivekanand Jha

University of Oxford

Jacek Józwiak

Politechnika Częstochowska

Oommen John

George Institute for Global Health

Sarah Charlotte Johnson

University of Washington

Jost B. Jonas

Universitatsklinikum Mannheim

Vasna Joshua

National Institute of Epidemiology

Mikk Jürisson

Tartu Ülikool

Zubair Kabir

University College Cork

Rajendra Kadel

London School of Economics and Political Science

Amaha Kahsay

Mekelle University

Rizwan Kalani

University of Washington

Chittaranjan Kar

SCB Medical College

Marina Karanikolos

European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies

André Karch

Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research

Corine Kakizi Karema

Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)

Seyed M. Karimi

University of Washington Tacoma

Amir Kasaeian

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Dessalegn Haile Kassa

Debre Markos University

Getachew Mullu Kassa

Debre Markos University

Tesfaye Dessale Kassa

Mekelle University

Nicholas J. Kassebaum

University of Washington

Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi

University of Glasgow

Anil Kaul

Oklahoma State University System

Norito Kawakami

University of Tokyo

Konstantin Kazanjan

National Center for Disease Control and Public Health

Seifu Kebede

Mekelle University

Peter Njenga Keiyoro

Institute of Tropical and Infectious Diseases

Grant Rodgers Kemp

University of Washington

Andre Pascal Kengne

South African Medical Research Council

Maia Kereselidze

National Center for Disease Control and Public Health

Ezra Belay Ketema

Mekelle University

Yousef Saleh Khader

Public Health and Family Medicine

Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie

Ahvaz, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences

Alireza Khajavi

Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

Ibrahim A. Khalil

University of Washington

Ejaz Ahmad Khan

Health Services Academy

Gulfaraz Khan

College of Medicine and Health Sciences

Md Nuruzzaman Khan

University of Alabama at Birmingham

Muhammad Ali Khan

University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Mukti Nath Khanal

Health Management Information System

Young-Ho Khang

Department of Health Policy and Management

Mona M. Khater

Cairo University

Abdullah Tawfih Abdullah Khoja

Johns Hopkins University

Ardeshir Khosravi

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Jagdish Khubchandani

Ball State University

Getiye Dejenu Kibret

Debre Markos University

Daniel Ngari Kiirithio

Kenya Revenue Authority

Daniel Kim

Northeastern University

Yun Jin Kim

Xiamen University Malaysia Campus

Ruth W. Kimokoti

Simmons College

Yohannes Kinfu

University of Canberra

Sanjay Kinra

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Adnan Kisa

Universitetet i Oslo

Niranjan Kissoon

University of British Columbia (UBC)

Sonali Kochhar

University of Washington

Yoshihiro Kokubo

National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center

Jacek A. Kopec

University of British Columbia (UBC)

Soewarta Kosen

Health Policy and Humanities

Parvaiz A. Koul

Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences

Ai Koyanagi

Research and Development Unit

Michael Kravchenko

Research Center of Neurology

Kewal Krishan

Panjab University

Kristopher J. Krohn

University of Washington

Barthelemy Kuate Defo

Université de Montréal

G. Anil Kumar

Public Health Foundation of India

Pushpendra Kumar

International Institute for Population Sciences

Michael Kutz

University of Washington

Igor Kuzin

State Institution Public Health Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine

Hmwe H. Kyu

University of Washington

Deepesh Pravinkumar Lad

Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research

Alessandra Lafranconi

Universita' degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca

Dharmesh Kumar Lal

Public Health Foundation of India

Ratilal Lalloo

University of Queensland

Hilton Lam

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda

Qing Lan

National Cancer Institute

Justin J. Lang

Public Health Agency of Canada

Van C. Lansingh

Inc.

Sonia Lansky

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Anders Larsson

Uppsala universitet

Arman Latifi

Maragheh University of Medical Sciences

Jeffrey Victor Lazarus

Universitat de Barcelona

Janet L. Leasher

Nova Southeastern University

Paul H. Lee

Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Yirga Legesse

Mekelle University

James Leigh

The University of Sydney

Cheru Tesema Leshargie

Debre Markos University

Samson Leta

Addis Ababa University

Janni Leung

University of Washington

Ricky Leung

State University of New York

Miriam Levi

Tuscany Regional Centre for Occupational Injuries and Diseases

Yongmei Li

VA Medical Center

Juan Liang

West China Hospital

Misgan Legesse Liben

Samara University

Lee-Ling Lim

University of Malaya

Stephen S. Lim

University of Washington

Margaret Lind

University of Washington

Shai Linn

University of Haifa

Stefan Listl

Universität Heidelberg

Patrick Y. Liu

University of Washington

Shiwei Liu

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

Rakesh Lodha

All India Institute of Medical Sciences

Alan D. Lopez

University of Melbourne

Scott A. Lorch

University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Stefan Lorkowski

Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

Paulo A. Lotufo

Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP)

Timothy C.D. Lucas

Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery

Raimundas Lunevicius

Aintree University Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust

Grégoire Lurton

University of Washington

Ronan A. Lyons

Swansea University

Fadi Maalouf

American University of Beirut

Erlyn Rachelle King Macarayan

Harvard University

Mark T. Mackay

University of Melbourne

Emilie R. Maddison

University of Washington

Fabiana Madotto

Universita' degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca

Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek

Mansoura University

Mohammed Magdy Abd El Razek

Aswan Faculty of Medicine

Marek Majdan

Department of Public Health

Reza Majdzadeh

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Azeem Majeed

Imperial College London

Reza Malekzadeh

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Rajesh Malhotra

All India Institute of Medical Sciences

Deborah Carvalho Malta

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Abdullah A. Mamun

University of Queensland

Helena Manguerra

University of Washington

Treh Manhertz

University of Washington

Mohammad Ali Mansournia

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Lorenzo G. Mantovani

Universita' degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca

Tsegahun Manyazewal

Ethiopian Public Health Association

Chabila C. Mapoma

University of Zambia

Christopher Margono

University of Washington

Jose Martinez-Raga

Hospital Universitario Doctor Peset

Sheila Cristina Ouriques Martins

Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre

Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo

Science and Technology of Ceará

Ira Martopullo

University of Washington

Winfried März

Synlab Academy

Benjamin Ballard Massenburg

University of Washington

Manu Raj Mathur

Public Health Foundation of India

Pallab K. Maulik

George Institute for Global Health

Mohsen Mazidi

Chalmers, Biologi och bioteknik, Livsmedelsvetenskap

Colm McAlinden

NHS Foundation Trust

John J. McGrath

University of Queensland

Martin McKee

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Suresh Mehata

Ipas Nepal

Ravi Mehrotra

National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research

Kala M. Mehta

University of California

Varshil Mehta

MGM Medical College

Toni Meier

Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg

Fabiola Mejia-Rodriguez

National Institute of Public Health

Kidanu Gebremariam Meles

Mekelle University

Mulugeta Melku

University of Gondar

Peter Memiah

University of West Florida

Ziad A. Memish

Saudi Ministry of Health

Walter Mendoza

United Nations Population Fund

Degu Abate Mengiste

Haramaya University

Desalegn Tadese Mengistu

Mekelle University

Bereket Gebremichael Menota

Addis Ababa University

George A. Mensah

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda

Atte Meretoja

University of Melbourne

Tuomo J. Meretoja

Helsinki University Central Hospital

Haftay Berhane Mezgebe

Mekelle University

Tomasz Miazgowski

Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin

Renata Micha

Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy

Robert Milam

Doctor Evidence

Anoushka Millear

University of Washington

Ted R. Miller

Curtin University

G.K. Mini

Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology

Shawn Minnig

University of Washington

Andreea Mirica

Academia de Studii Economice din București

Erkin M. Mirrakhimov

Kyrgyz State Medical Academy

Awoke Misganaw

University of Washington

Philip B. Mitchell

University of New South Wales (UNSW)

Fitsum Weldegebreal Mlashu

Haramaya University

Babak Moazen

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad

Salahaddin University

Roghayeh Mohammadibakhsh

Hamedan University of Medical Sciences

Ebrahim Mohammed

Mekelle University

Mohammed A. Mohammed

Jigjiga University

Shafiu Mohammed

Institute of Public Health

Ali H. Mokdad

University of Washington

Glen Liddell D. Mola

University of Papua New Guinea

Mariam Molokhia

King's College London

Fatemeh Momeniha

School of Public Health

Lorenzo Monasta

IRCCS Burlo Garofolo

Julio Cesar Montañez Hernandez

National Institute of Public Health

Mahmood Moosazadeh

Addiction Institute

Maziar Moradi-Lakeh

Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center

Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences

Paula Moraga

Lancaster University

Lidia Morawska

Queensland University of Technology (QUT)

Ilais Moreno Velasquez

Gorgas Memorial Institute for Health Studies

Rintaro Mori

National Center for Child Health and Development

Shane D. Morrison

University of Washington

Mark Moses

University of Washington

Seyyed Meysam Mousavi

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Ulrich O. Mueller

Federal Institute for Population Research

Manoj Murhekar

Indian Council of Medical Research

Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana Murthy

Indian Institute of Public Health

Srinivas Murthy

University of British Columbia (UBC)

Jonah Musa

University of Jos

Kamarul Imran Musa

University of Science Malaysia

Ghulam Mustafa

Helping Hands Foundation

Saravanan Muthupandian

Mekelle University

Chie Nagata

National Center for Child Health and Development

Gabriele Nagel

Universität Ulm

Mohsen Naghavi

University of Washington

Aliya Naheed

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh

Gurudatta A. Naik

University of Alabama at Birmingham

Nitish Naik

All India Institute of Medical Sciences

Farid Najafi

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Luigi Naldi

Azienda Ospedaliera Papa Giovanni XXIII

Vinay Nangia

Suraj Eye Institute

Jobert Richie Njingang Nansseu

Universite de Yaounde I

K.M. Venkat Narayan

Emory University

Bruno Ramos Nascimento

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Ionut Negoi

Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy

Ruxandra Irina Negoi

Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy

Charles R. Newton

University of Oxford

Josephine Wanjiku Ngunjiri

University of Nairobi

Grant Nguyen

University of Washington

Long Nguyen

Karolinska Institutet

Trang Huyen Nguyen

Duy Tan University

Emma Nichols

University of Washington

Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum

Semarang State University

Ellen Nolte

European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies

Vuong Minh Nong

Duy Tan University

Ole F. Norheim

Universitetet i Bergen

Bo Norrving

Skånes universitetssjukhus (SUS)

Jean Jacques N. Noubiap

University of Cape Town

Alypio Nyandwi

Rwanda Ministry of Health

Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer

American University of Beirut

Richard Ofori-Asenso

Monash University

Felix Akpojene Ogbo

Centre for Health Research

In-Hwan Oh

Kyung Hee University

Olanrewaju Oladimeji

University of KwaZulu-Natal

Andrew Toyin Olagunju

University of Adelaide

Tinuke Oluwasefunmi Olagunju

McMaster University

Pedro R. Olivares

Universidad Autonoma de Chile

Patricia Pereira Vasconcelos De Oliveira

Ministry of Health of Brazil

Helen E. Olsen

University of Washington

Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya

Center for Healthy Start Initiative

Jacob Olusegun Olusanya

Center for Healthy Start Initiative

Kanyin Ong

University of Washington

John Nelson Opio

Lira Municipal Council

Eyal Oren

Graduate School of Public Health

Doris V. Ortega-Altamirano

National Institute of Public Health

Alberto Ortiz

IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz-UAM

Raziye Ozdemir

Karabük Universitesi

Mahesh Pa

JSS University

Amanda W. Pain

University of Washington

Marcos Roberto Tovani Palone

Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP)

Adrian Pana

Academia de Studii Economice din București

Songhomitra Panda-Jonas

Medical Faculty Mannheim

Jeyaraj D. Pandian

Christian Medical College Ludhiana

Eun-Kee Park

College of Medicine

Hadi Parsian

Babol University of Medical Sciences

Tejas Patel

White Plains Hospital

Sanghamitra Pati

Public Health Foundation of India

Snehal T. Patil

Deemed University

Ajay Patle

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

George C. Patton

University of Melbourne

Vishnupriya Rao Paturi

Diabetes Research Society

Deepak Paudel

UK Department for International Development

Marcel De Moares Pedroso

Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca

Sandra P. Pedroza

University of Washington

David M. Pereira

Universidade do Porto

Norberto Perico

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri

Hannah Peterson

University of Washington

Max Petzold

Göteborgs universitet

Niloofar Peykari

Ministry of Health and Medical Education

Michael Robert Phillips

Emory University

Frédéric B. Piel

Imperial College London

David M. Pigott

University of Washington

Julian David Pillay

Durban University of Technology

Michael A. Piradov

Research Center of Neurology

Suzanne Polinder

Erasmus University Medical Center

Constance D. Pond

University of Newcastle, Australia

Maarten J. Postma

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Farshad Pourmalek

University of British Columbia (UBC)

Swayam Prakash

Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences

V. Prakash

Charotar University of Science and Technology

Narayan Prasad

Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences

Noela Marie Prasad

University of Melbourne

Caroline Purcell

University of Washington

Mostafa Qorbani

Alborz University of Medical Sciences

Hedley Knewjen Quintana

Commemorative Gorgas Institute for Health Studies

Amir Radfar

A T Still University

Anwar Rafay

Contech International Health Consultants

Alireza Rafiei

School of Medicine

Kazem Rahimi

University of Oxford

Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

V. Rahimi-Movaghar

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Mahfuzar Rahman

La Trobe University

Muhammad Aziz Rahman

BRAC

Sajjad Ur Rahman

Sweidi Hospital

Rajesh Kumar Rai

Society for Health and Demographic Surveillance

Sree Bhushan Raju

Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences

Usha Ram

International Institute for Population Sciences

Saleem M. Rana

Contech International Health Consultants

Zane Rankin

University of Washington

Davide Rasella

Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca

David Laith Rawaf

WHO Collaborating Centre

Salman Rawaf

Imperial College London

Sarah E. Ray

University of Washington

Christian Aspacia Razo-García

National Institute of Public Health

Priscilla Reddy

Human Sciences Research Council

Robert C. Reiner

University of Washington

Cesar Reis

Loma Linda University Medical Center

Marissa B. Reitsma

University of Washington

Giuseppe Remuzzi

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri

Andre M.N. Renzaho

Western Sydney University

Serge Resnikoff

Brien Holden Vision Institute

Satar Rezaei

School of Public Health

Mohammad Sadegh Rezai

Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

Antonio L. Ribeiro

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Maria Jesus Rios Blancas

National Institute of Public Health

Juan A. Rivera

National Institute of Public Health

Leonardo Roever

Federal University of Uberlândia

Luca Ronfani

IRCCS Burlo Garofolo

Gholamreza Roshandel

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Ali Rostami

School of Medicine

Gregory A. Roth

University of Washington

Dietrich Rothenbacher

Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry

Ambuj Roy

All India Institute of Medical Sciences

Nobhojit Roy

Karolinska Institutet

George Mugambage Ruhago

Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences

Yogesh Damodar Sabde

National Institute for Research in Environmental Health

Perminder S. Sachdev

University of New South Wales (UNSW)

Nafis Sadat

University of Washington

Mahdi Safdarian

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Saeid Safiri

Department of Public Health

Rajesh Sagar

All India Institute of Medical Sciences

Amirhossein Sahebkar

University of Western Australia

Mohammad Ali Sahraian

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Haniye Sadat Sajadi

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Joseph Salama

University of Washington

Payman Salamati

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Raphael De Freitas Saldanha

Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca

Hamideh Salimzadeh

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Joshua A. Salomon

Harvard School of Public Health

Abdallah M. Samy

Ain Shams University

Juan Ramon Sanabria

Marshall University

Parag K. Sancheti

Sancheti Institute for Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation

Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño

IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz-UAM

Damian Santomauro

University of Washington

Itamar S. Santos

Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP)

Milena M. Santric Milicevic

Univerzitet u Beogradu

Abdur Razzaque Sarker

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh

Nizal Sarrafzadegan

University of British Columbia (UBC)

Benn Sartorius

UKZN Gastrointestinal Cancer Research Centre

Maheswar Satpathy

Utkal University

Miloje Savic

Norwegian Institute of Public Health

Monika Sawhney

Marshall University

Sonia Saxena

Imperial College London

Mete I. Saylan

Bayer Turkey

Elke Schaeffner

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin

Josef Schmidhuber

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Maria Inês Schmidt

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)

Ione J.C. Schneider

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

Austin E. Schumacher

University of Washington

Aletta E. Schutte

South African Medical Research Council

David C. Schwebel

University of Alabama at Birmingham

Falk Schwendicke

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin

Mario Sekerija

Croatian Institute of Public Health

Sadaf G. Sepanlou

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Edson E. Servan-Mori

National Institute of Public Health

Azadeh Shafieesabet

NYU Langone Medical Center

Masood Ali Shaikh

Marina Shakh-Nazarova

National Center for Disease Control and Public Health

Mehran Shams-Beyranvand

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Heidar Sharafi

Middle East Liver Disease Center

Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

George Institute for Global Health

Meenakshi Sharma

Indian Council of Medical Research

Rajesh Sharma

Delhi Technological University

Jun She

Fudan University

Aziz Sheikh

Harvard Medical School

Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin Shfare

College of Health Sciences and Referral Hospital

Peilin Shi

Tufts University

Chloe Shields

University of Washington

Mika Shigematsu

National Institute of Infectious Diseases

Yukito Shinohara

Tachikawa Hospital

Rahman Shiri

Helsingin Yliopisto

Reza Shirkoohi

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Ivy Shiue

Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg

Mark G. Shrime

Harvard Medical School

Sharvari Rahul Shukla

Symbiosis International University

Soraya Siabani

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Inga Dora Sigfusdottir

Reykjavik University

Donald H. Silberberg

University of Pennsylvania

Diego Augusto Santos Silva

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

João Pedro Silva

Toxicology Group

Dayane Gabriele Alves Silveira

Universidade de Brasilia

Jasvinder A. Singh

University of Alabama at Birmingham

Lavanya Singh

University of Washington

Narinder Pal Singh

Max Hospital

Virendra Singh

Asthma Bhawan

Dhirendra Narain Sinha

School of Preventive Oncology

Abiy Hiruye Sinke

Ethiopian Medical Association

Mekonnen Sisay

Haramaya University

Vegard Skirbekk

Columbia University in the City of New York

Karen Sliwa

Hatter Institute for Cardiovascular Research in Africa

Alison Smith

University of Washington

Adauto Martins Soares Filho

Ministry of Health of Brazil

Badr H.A. Sobaih

King Saud University

Melek Somai

Tunisian Center for Public Health

Samir Soneji

Dartmouth College

Moslem Soofi

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Reed J.D. Sorensen

University of Washington

Joan B. Soriano

Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario de la Princesa (IISP)

Ireneous N. Soyiri

University of Edinburgh

Luciano A. Sposato

Western University

Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy

International Medical University

Vinay Srinivasan

University of Washington

Jeffrey D. Stanaway

University of Washington

Vasiliki Stathopoulou

Attikon University Hospital

Nicholas Steel

Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences

Dan J. Stein

University of Cape Town

South African Medical Research Council

Mark Andrew Stokes

Deakin University

Lela Sturua

National Center for Disease Control and Public Health

Muawiyyah Babale Sufiyan

Ahmadu Bello University

Rizwan Abdulkader Suliankatchi

Saudi Ministry of Health

Bruno F. Sunguya

Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences

Patrick J. Sur

University of Washington

Bryan L. Sykes

University of California at Irvine (UCI)

P.N. Sylaja

Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology

Cassandra E.I. Szoeke

University of Melbourne

Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos

Universitat de Valencia

Santosh Kumar Tadakamadla

Griffith University

Andualem Henok Tadesse

Mizan Tepi University

Getachew Redae Taffere

Mekelle University

Nikhil Tandon

All India Institute of Medical Sciences

Amare Tariku Tariku

University of Gondar

Nuno Taveira

Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz

Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Girma Temam Shifa

Addis Ababa University

Mohamad-Hani Temsah

King Saud University

Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi

University of Virginia

Azeb Gebresilassie Tesema

Mekelle University

Dawit Jember Tesfaye

Hawassa University

Belay Tessema

University of Gondar

J.S. Thakur

School of Public Health

Nihal Thomas

Christian Medical College

Matthew J. Thompson

University of Washington

Taavi Tillmann

University College London (UCL)

Quyen G. To

Queensland University of Technology (QUT)

Ruoyan Tobe-Gai

National Center for Child Health and Development

Marcello Tonelli

University of Calgary

Roman Topor-Madry

Faculty of Health Sciences

Fotis Topouzis

Aristotelio Panepistimio Thessalonikis

Anna Torre

University of Washington

Miguel Tortajada

Hospital Universitario Doctor Peset

Bach Xuan Tran

Johns Hopkins University

Khanh Bao Tran

University of Auckland

Avnish Tripathi

University of Louisville School of Medicine

Srikanth Prasad Tripathy

National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis

Christopher Troeger

University of Washington

Thomas Truelsen

Köpenhamns universitet

Derrick Tsoi

University of Washington

Lorainne Tudor Car

Nanyang Technological University

Kald Beshir Tuem

Mekelle University

Stefanos Tyrovolas

Universitat de Barcelona

Uche S. Uchendu

Department of Veterans Affairs

Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja

Federal Teaching Hospital

Irfan Ullah

Gomal University

Rachel Updike

University of Washington

Olalekan A. Uthman

Warwick Medical School

Benjamin S. Chudi Uzochukwu

Nsukka

Pascual Rubén Valdez

Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires

Job F.M. Van Boven

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Santosh Varughese

Christian Medical College

Tommi Vasankari

UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research

Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian

Raffles Hospital

Francesco S. Violante

Universita di Bologna

Sergey K. Vladimirov

Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics

Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov

National Research University Higher School of Economics

Stein Emil Vollset

University of Washington

Theo Vos

University of Washington

Fasil Wagnew

Debre Markos University

Yasir Waheed

Foundation University

Mitchell T. Wallin

VA Medical Center

Judd L. Walson

University of Washington

Yafeng Wang

Fudan University

Yuan-Pang Wang

Xi'an Jiaotong University

Molla Mesele Wassie

University of Gondar

Marcia R. Weaver

University of Washington

Elisabete Weiderpass

Karolinska Institutet

Robert G. Weintraub

University of Melbourne

Jordan Weiss

University of Pennsylvania

Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs

Mekelle University

Andrea Werdecker

Competence Center Mortality-Follow-Up of the German National Cohort

T. Eoin West

University of Washington

Ronny Westerman

Federal Institute for Population Research

Richard G. White

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Harvey A. Whiteford

University of Washington

Justyna Widecka

VitroLive Sp z o.o.

Andrea Sylvia Winkler

Department of Neurology

Charles Shey Wiysonge

Obafemi Awolowo University

Charles D.A. Wolfe

King's College London

Yohanes Ayele Wondimkun

Haramaya University

Abdulhalik Workicho

Jimma University

Grant M.A. Wyper

NHS National Services Scotland

Denis Xavier

St John's Medical College and Research Institute

Gelin Xu

Jinling Hospital

Lijing L. Yan

Duke Kunshan University

Yuichiro Yano

Northwestern University

Mehdi Yaseri

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Nigus Bililign Yimer

Woldia University

Peng Yin

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

Paul Yip

The University of Hong Kong

Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw

Addis Ababa University

Naohiro Yonemoto

Kyoto University

Gerald Yonga

Aga Khan University

Seok-Jun Yoon

Korea University

Marcel Yotebieng

Ohio State University

Mustafa Z. Younis

Jackson State University

Chuanhua Yu

Wuhan University

Vesna Zadnik

Epidemiology and Cancer Registry

Zoubida Zaidi

University Hospital of Setif

Maysaa El Sayed Zaki

Mansoura University

Sojib Bin Zaman

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh

Mohammad Zamani

Babol University of Medical Sciences

Zerihun Menlkalew Zenebe

Mekelle University

Maigeng Zhou

University of Washington

Jun Zhu

National Office of MCH Surveillance of China

Stephanie R.M. Zimsen

University of Washington

Ben Zipkin

University of Washington

Sanjay Zodpey

Public Health Foundation of India

Liesl Joanna Zuhlke

Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital

Christopher J. L. Murray

University of Washington

Rafael Lozano

University of Washington

The Lancet

0140-6736 (ISSN) 1474-547X (eISSN)

Vol. 391 10136 2236-2271

Ämneskategorier

Hälso- och sjukvårdsorganisation, hälsopolitik och hälsoekonomi

Gerontologi, medicinsk/hälsovetenskaplig inriktning

Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi

DOI

10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30994-2

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2019-12-06