Population and fertility by age and sex for 195 countries and territories, 1950–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2018

Background: Population estimates underpin demographic and epidemiological research and are used to track progress on numerous international indicators of health and development. To date, internationally available estimates of population and fertility, although useful, have not been produced with transparent and replicable methods and do not use standardised estimates of mortality. We present single-calendar year and single-year of age estimates of fertility and population by sex with standardised and replicable methods. Methods: We estimated population in 195 locations by single year of age and single calendar year from 1950 to 2017 with standardised and replicable methods. We based the estimates on the demographic balancing equation, with inputs of fertility, mortality, population, and migration data. Fertility data came from 7817 location-years of vital registration data, 429 surveys reporting complete birth histories, and 977 surveys and censuses reporting summary birth histories. We estimated age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs; the annual number of livebirths to women of a specified age group per 1000 women in that age group) by use of spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression and used the ASFRs to estimate total fertility rates (TFRs; the average number of children a woman would bear if she survived through the end of the reproductive age span [age 10–54 years] and experienced at each age a particular set of ASFRs observed in the year of interest). Because of sparse data, fertility at ages 10–14 years and 50–54 years was estimated from data on fertility in women aged 15–19 years and 45–49 years, through use of linear regression. Age-specific mortality data came from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 estimates. Data on population came from 1257 censuses and 761 population registry location-years and were adjusted for underenumeration and age misreporting with standard demographic methods. Migration was estimated with the GBD Bayesian demographic balancing model, after incorporating information about refugee migration into the model prior. Final population estimates used the cohort-component method of population projection, with inputs of fertility, mortality, and migration data. Population uncertainty was estimated by use of out-of-sample predictive validity testing. With these data, we estimated the trends in population by age and sex and in fertility by age between 1950 and 2017 in 195 countries and territories. Findings: From 1950 to 2017, TFRs decreased by 49·4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 46·4–52·0). The TFR decreased from 4·7 livebirths (4·5–4·9) to 2·4 livebirths (2·2–2·5), and the ASFR of mothers aged 10–19 years decreased from 37 livebirths (34–40) to 22 livebirths (19–24) per 1000 women. Despite reductions in the TFR, the global population has been increasing by an average of 83·8 million people per year since 1985. The global population increased by 197·2% (193·3–200·8) since 1950, from 2·6 billion (2·5–2·6) to 7·6 billion (7·4–7·9) people in 2017; much of this increase was in the proportion of the global population in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The global annual rate of population growth increased between 1950 and 1964, when it peaked at 2·0%; this rate then remained nearly constant until 1970 and then decreased to 1·1% in 2017. Population growth rates in the southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania GBD super-region decreased from 2·5% in 1963 to 0·7% in 2017, whereas in sub-Saharan Africa, population growth rates were almost at the highest reported levels ever in 2017, when they were at 2·7%. The global average age increased from 26·6 years in 1950 to 32·1 years in 2017, and the proportion of the population that is of working age (age 15–64 years) increased from 59·9% to 65·3%. At the national level, the TFR decreased in all countries and territories between 1950 and 2017; in 2017, TFRs ranged from a low of 1·0 livebirths (95% UI 0·9–1·2) in Cyprus to a high of 7·1 livebirths (6·8–7·4) in Niger. The TFR under age 25 years (TFU25; number of livebirths expected by age 25 years for a hypothetical woman who survived the age group and was exposed to current ASFRs) in 2017 ranged from 0·08 livebirths (0·07–0·09) in South Korea to 2·4 livebirths (2·2–2·6) in Niger, and the TFR over age 30 years (TFO30; number of livebirths expected for a hypothetical woman ageing from 30 to 54 years who survived the age group and was exposed to current ASFRs) ranged from a low of 0·3 livebirths (0·3–0·4) in Puerto Rico to a high of 3·1 livebirths (3·0–3·2) in Niger. TFO30 was higher than TFU25 in 145 countries and territories in 2017. 33 countries had a negative population growth rate from 2010 to 2017, most of which were located in central, eastern, and western Europe, whereas population growth rates of more than 2·0% were seen in 33 of 46 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2017, less than 65% of the national population was of working age in 12 of 34 high-income countries, and less than 50% of the national population was of working age in Mali, Chad, and Niger. Interpretation: Population trends create demographic dividends and headwinds (ie, economic benefits and detriments) that affect national economies and determine national planning needs. Although TFRs are decreasing, the global population continues to grow as mortality declines, with diverse patterns at the national level and across age groups. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide transparent and replicable estimates of population and fertility, which can be used to inform decision making and to monitor progress. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Författare

Christopher J. L. Murray

University of Washington

Charlton S. K. H. Callender

University of Washington

Xie Rachel Kulikoff

University of Washington

Vinay Srinivasan

University of Washington

Degu Abate

Haramaya University

Kalkidan Hassen Abate

Jimma Universitetet

Solomon M. Abay

Novartis International AG

Nooshin Abbasi

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Hedayat Abbastabar

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Jemal Abdela

School of Pharmacy

Ahmed Abdelalim

Cairo University

Omar Abdel-Rahman

University of Calgary

Alireza Abdi

Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery

Nasrin Abdoli

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Ibrahim Abdollahpour

Arak University of Medical Sciences

Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University

Haftom Temesgen Abebe

College of Health Sciences

Molla Abebe

Armauer Hansen Research Institute

Zegeye Abebe

Human Nutrition Department

Teshome Abuka Abebo

College of Medicine and Health Sciences

Ayenew Negesse Abejie

Debre Markos University

Victor Aboyans

Hopital Dupuytren

Haftom Niguse Abraha

Clinical Pharmacy Unit

Daisy M.X. Abreu

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Aklilu Roba Abrham

Haramaya Universitet

Laith J. Abu-Raddad

Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar

Niveen M.E. Abu-Rmeileh

Birzeit University

Manfred Mario Kokou Accrombessi

Bénin Clinical Research Institute

Pawan Acharya

Nepal Development Society

Abdu A Adamu

Universiteit Stellenbosch

Oladimeji M. Adebayo

University College Hospital

Isaac Akinkunmi Adedeji

Olabisi Onabanjo University

Victor Adekanmbi

Cardiff University

Olatunji Adetokunboh

Universiteit Stellenbosch

Beyene Meressa Adhena

School of Public Health

Tara Ballav Adhikari

Center for Social Science and Public Health Research Nepal

Mina G. Adib

Saint Mark Hospital

Arsène Kouablan Adou

Ivorian Association for Family Welfare

Jose C. Adsuar

Universidad de Extremadura

Mohsen Afarideh

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Ashkan Afshin

University of Washington

Gina Agarwal

McMaster University

Kareha M. Agesa

University of Washington

Sargis Aghasi Aghayan

Yerevan State University

Sutapa Agrawal

Public Health Foundation of India

Alireza Ahmadi

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Mehdi Ahmadi

Ahvaz, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences

Muktar Beshir Ahmed

Jimma Universitetet

Sayem Ahmed

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh

Amani Nidhal Aichour

University Ferhat Abbas of Setif

Ibtihel Aichour

University Ferhat Abbas of Setif

Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour

High National School of Veterinary Medicine

Ali S. Akanda

University of Rhode Island

Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari

Cancer Research Center

Mohammed Akibu

Debre Berhan University

Rufus Olusola Akinyemi

University of Ibadan

Tomi F. Akinyemiju

University of Kentucky

Nadia Akseer

Hospital for Sick Children University of Toronto

Fares Alahdab

Mayo Clinic

Ziyad Al-Aly

Washington University in St. Louis

Khurshid Alam

University of Western Australia

Animut Alebel

Debre Markos University

Alicia V. Aleman

Universidad de la Republica

Kefyalew Addis Alene

Institute of Public Health

Ayman Al-Eyadhy

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

Raghib Ali

New York University Abu Dhabi

Mehran Alijanzadeh

Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

Reza Alizadeh-Navaei

Gastrointestinal Cancer Research Center

Syed M. Aljunid

University of Kuwait

Ala'a Alkerwi

Luxembourg Institute of Health

François Alla

Université de Bordeaux

Peter Allebeck

Karolinska Institutet

Ali Almasi

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Jordi Alonso

Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute

Rajaa Al-Raddadi

King Abdulaziz University

Ubai Alsharif

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin

Khalid Altirkawi

King Saud University

Nelson Alvis-Guzman

Universidad de Cartagena

Azmeraw T. Amare

Australia Bahir Dar University

Walid Ammar

Federal Ministry of Health

Nahla Anber

Faculty of Medicine

Catalina Liliana Andrei

Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy

Sofia Androudi

University of Thessaly

Megbaru Debalkie Animut

Arba Minch University

Hossein Ansari

Zahedan University of Medical Sciences

Mustafa Geleto Ansha

Debre Berhan University

Carl Abelardo T. Antonio

University of the Philippines Manila

Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah

Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

Olatunde Aremu

Birmingham City University

Habtamu Abera Areri

Hawassa University

Nicholas Arian

University of Washington

Johan Ärnlöv

Karolinska Institutet

Al Artaman

University of Manitoba

Krishna Kumar Aryal

Abt Associates Nepal

Hamid Asayesh

School of Paramedical

Ephrem Tsegay Asfaw

Institute of Biomedical Science

Solomon Weldegebreal Asgedom

School of Pharmacy

Reza Assadi

Mashhad University of Medical Sciences

Tesfay Mehari Mehari Atey

School of Pharmacy

Suleman Atique

University of Lahore

Madhu S. Atteraya

Keimyung University

Marcel Ausloos

University Of Leicester

Euripide Frinel G. Arthur Avokpaho

Bénin Clinical Research Institute

Ashish Awasthi

Indian Institute of Public Health

Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla

La Trobe University

Yohanes Ayele

School of Pharmacy

Rakesh Ayer

University of Tokyo

Tambe Betrand Ayuk

Institute of Medical Research and Plant Medicinal Studies-Cameroon

Peter S. Azzopardi

Australia Bahir Dar University

Tesleem Kayode Babalola

University of KwaZulu-Natal

Arefeh Babazadeh

Center for Infectious Diseases Research

Hamid Badali

Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

Alaa Badawi

University of Toronto

Ayele Geleto Bali

School of Public Health

Maciej Banach

Medical University of Lodz

Suzanne L. Barker-Collo

University of Auckland

Till Bärnighausen

Universität Heidelberg

Lope H. Barrero

School of Engineering

Huda Basaleem

University of Aden

Quique Bassat

Universitat de Barcelona

Arindam Basu

University of Canterbury

Bernhard T. Baune

Melbourne Medical School

Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes

University of Gondar

Ettore Beghi

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri

Masoud Behzadifar

Health Management and Economics Research Center

Meysam Behzadifar

Lorestan University of Medical Sciences

Bayu Begashaw Bekele

Institute of Public Health

Abate Bekele Belachew

School of Public Health

Aregawi Gebreyesus Belay

Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

Ezra Belay

Mekelle University

Saba Abraham Belay

Tewelde Legesse Health Sciences College

Yihalem Abebe Belay

Debre Markos University

Michelle L. Bell

Yale University

Aminu K. Bello

University of Alberta

Derrick A. Bennett

Nuffield Department of Population Health

Isabela M. Bensenor

Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP)

Gilles Bergeron

New York Academy of Sciences

Adugnaw Berhane

School of Public Health

Adam E. Berman

Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University

Eduardo Bernabe

King's College London

Robert S. Bernstein

Emory University

Gregory J. Bertolacci

University of Washington

Mircea Beuran

Emergency Hospital of Bucharest

Suraj Bhattarai

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Soumyadeep Bhaumik

George Institute for Global Health

Zulfiqar A. Bhutta

Hospital for Sick Children University of Toronto

Belete Biadgo

University of Gondar

Ali Bijani

Social Determinants of Health Research Centers

Boris Bikbov

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri

Nigus Bililign

Woldia University

Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed

Australian National University

Sait Mentes Birlik

Universita di Bologna

Charles Birungi

University College London (UCL)

Tuhin Biswas

A T Still University

Hailemichael Bizuneh

St Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College

Archie Bleyer

University of Texas Medical School

Berrak Bora Basara

General Directorate of Health Information Systems

Cristina Bosetti

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri

Soufiane Boufous

University of New South Wales (UNSW)

Oliver Jerome Brady

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Nicola Luigi Bragazzi

Università degli Studi di Genova

Michael Brainin

Donau-Universitat Krems

Alexandra Brazinova

Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave

Nicholas J.K. Breitborde

Ohio State University

Hermann Brenner

Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ)

Jerry D. Brewer

Mayo Clinic

Paul Svitil Briant

University of Washington

Gabrielle Britton

Neuroscience Department

Roy Burstein

University of Washington

Reinhard Busse

Institute of Public Health

Zahid A. Butt

School of Population and Public Health

Lucero Cahuana-Hurtado

Center for Health Systems Research

Ismael Ricardo Campos-Nonato

National Institute of Public Health

Julio Cesar Campuzano Rincon

National Institute of Public Health

Jorge Cano

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Mate Car

Ministry of Health

Rosario Cárdenas

Metropolitan Autonomous University

Juan Jesus Carrero

Karolinska Institutet

Felix Carvalho

Universidade do Porto

Carlos A. Castañeda-Orjuela

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda

Jacqueline Castillo Rivas

Dirección Actuarial

Franz Castro

Gorgas Memorial Institute for Health Studies

Ferrán Catalá-López

Instituto de Salud Carlos III

Alanur Çavlin

Hacettepe Üniversitesi

Ester Cerin

School of Public Health

Julian Chalek

University of Washington

Hsing-Yi Chang

National Health Research Institutes

Jung-Chen Chang

College of Medicine

Aparajita Chattopadhyay

International Institute for Population Sciences

Pankaj Chaturvedi

Tata Memorial Hospital

Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang

Gold Coast Health

Ken Lee Chin

Monash University

Vesper Hichilombwe Chisumpa

University of Zambia

Abdulaal Chitheer

Ministry of Health

Jee-Young J. Choi

Biochemistry

Rajiv Chowdhury

University of Cambridge

Devasahayam Jesudas Christopher

Christian Medical College

Flavia M Cicuttini

Monash University

Liliana G. Ciobanu

University of Adelaide

Massimo Cirillo

Universita degli Studi di Salerno

Rafael M. Claro

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Daniel Collado-Mateo

Universidad de Extremadura

Maria-Magdalena Constantin

2nd Department of Dermatology

Sara Conti

Universita' degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca

Cyrus Cooper

NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre

Leslie Trumbull Cooper

Mayo Clinic

Leslie Cornaby

University of Washington

Paolo Angelo Cortesi

Universita' degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca

Monica Cortinovis

Arizona State University

Megan Costa

Arizona State University

Elizabeth A. Cromwell

University of Washington

Christopher Stephen Crowe

University of Washington

Petra Cukelj

Croatian Institute of Public Health

Matthew Cunningham

University of Washington

Alemneh Kabeta Daba

College of Medicine and Health Sciences

Berihun Assefa Dachew

School of Public Health

Lalit Dandona

University of Washington

Rakhi Dandona

University of Washington

Paul I Dargan

King's College London

Ahmad Daryani

Toxoplasmosis Research Center

Rajat Das Gupta

James P Grant School of Public Health

José Das Neves

I3S- Instituto de Investigacao e Inovacao em Saude

Tamirat Tesfaye Dasa

Hawassa University

Aditya Prasad Dash

Central University Tamil Nadu

Nicole Davis Weaver

University of Washington

Dragos Virgil Davitoiu

Kazakh National Medical University

Kairat Davletov

Kazakh National Medical University

Diego De Leo

Griffith University

Jan-Walter De Neve

Universität Heidelberg

Meaza Girma Degefa

University of New South Wales (UNSW)

Louisa Degenhardt

University of Washington

Tizta Tilahun Degfie

African Population Health Research Centre

Selina Deiparine

University of Washington

Gebre Demoz

Addis Ababa University

Balem Demtsu

Mekelle University

Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez

Center for Nutrition and Health Research

Kebede Deribe

School of Public Health

Nikolaos Dervenis

Aintree University Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust

Don C. Des Jarlais

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Getenet Ayalew Dessie

University of Peradeniya

Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne

University of Washington

Meghnath Dhimal

Nepal Health Research Council

Daniel Dicker

University of Washington

Eric L Ding

Harvard University

Girmaye Deye Dinsa

Harvard University

Shirin Djalalinia

University of Washington

Huyen Phuc Do

Nguyen Tat Thanh University

Klara Dokova

Medical University of Varna

David Teye Doku

University of Cape Coast Ghana

Kate Dolan

University of New South Wales (UNSW)

Kerrie E Doyle

RMIT University

Tim R. Driscoll

The University of Sydney

Manisha Dubey

United Nations World Food Programme

Eleonora Dubljanin

Univerzitet u Beogradu

Eyasu Ejeta Duken

Jimma Universitetet

Andre R Duraes

Federal University of Bahia

Soheil Ebrahimpour

Center for Infectious Diseases Research

David Edvardsson

La Trobe University

Charbel El Bcheraoui

University of Washington

Ziad El-Khatib

Karolinska Institutet

Iqbal Rf Elyazar

Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology

Ahmadali Enayati

School of Public Health

Aman Yesuf Endries

St Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College

Sergey Petrovich Ermakov

Russian Academy of Sciences

Babak Eshrati

Center of Communicable Disease Control

Sharareh Eskandarieh

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Reza Esmaeili

Gonabad University of Medical Sciences

Alireza Esteghamati

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Sadaf Esteghamati

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Kara Estep

University of Washington

Hamed Fakhim

Urmia University of Medical Science

Tamer Farag

University of Washington

Mahbobeh Faramarzi

Babol University of Medical Sciences

Mohammad Fareed

Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University

Carla Sofia Esá Farinha

National Statistical Office

André Faro

Federal University of Sergipe

Maryam S Farvid

Harvard University

Farshad Farzadfar

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Mohammad Hosein Farzaei

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Kairsten A Fay

University of Washington

Mir Sohail Fazeli

Doctor Evidence

Valery L. Feigin

University of Washington

Andrea B. Feigl

Harvard University

Fariba Feizy

Sarem Fertility and Infertility Research Center

Ama P. Fenny

University of Ghana

Netsanet Fentahun

Bahar Dar University

Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad

Montreal Neurological Institute

Eduarda Fernandes

Universidade do Porto

Garumma Tolu Feyissa

Jimma Universitetet

Irina Filip

Kaiser Permanente

Samuel Finegold

University of Washington

Florian Fischer

Universität Bielefeld

Luisa Sorio Flor

Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca

Nataliya Foigt

Academy of Medical Science

Kyle J. Foreman

University of Washington

Carla Fornari

Universita' degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca

Thomas Fürst

Epidemiology and Public Health

Takeshi Fukumoto

Cancer Institute

John E. Fuller

University of Washington

Nancy Fullman

University of Washington

Emmanuela Gakidou

University of Washington

Silvano Gallus

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri

Amiran Gamkrelidze

National Centre for Disease Control

Morsaleh Ganji

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Fortune Gbetoho Gankpe

Laboratory of Studies and Research-Action in Health

Gregory M. Garcia

University of Washington

Miguel A. Garcia-Gordillo

Autonomous University of Chile

Abadi Kahsu Gebre

School of Pharmacy

Teshome Gebre

Task Force for Global Health

Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs

School of Public Health

Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot

Jimma Universitetet

Amanuel Tesfay Gebremedhin

Jimma Universitetet

Tilayie Feto Gelano

Haramaya University

Yalemzewod Assefa Gelaw

Institute of Public Health

Johanna M. Geleijnse

Wageningen University and Research

Ricard Genova-Maleras

Regional Health Council

Peter W. Gething

Big Data Institute

Kebede Embaye Gezae

Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

Mohammad Rasoul Ghadami

Sleep Disorders Research Center

Reza Ghadimi

Health Research Institute

Keyghobad Ghadiri

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani

Iran University of Science and Technology

Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman

Health Research Institute

Hesam Ghiasvand

Social Determinants of Health Research Center

Mamata Ghimire

University of Tsukuba

Aloke Gopal Ghoshal

National Allergy Asthma Bronchitis Institute

Paramjit Singh Gill

The University of Warwick

Tiffany K Gill

University of Adelaide

Giorgia Giussani

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri

Elena V Gnedovskaya

Research Center of Neurology

Srinivas Goli

International Institute for Population Sciences

Ricardo Santiago Gomez

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Hector Gómez-Dantés

Center for Health Systems Research

Philimon N. Gona

University of Massachusetts Boston

Amador Goodridge

Tuberculosis Biomarker Research Unit

Sameer Vali Gopalani

University of Oklahoma

Alessandra Carvalho Goulart

Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP)

Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)

Ayman Grada

Boston University

Giuseppe Grosso

Universita degli Studi di Catania

Harish Chander Gugnani

Saint James School of Medicine

Jingwen Guo

University of Washington

Yuming Guo

Monash University

Prakash C. Gupta

Harvard School of Public Health

Rahul Gupta

West Virginia Bureau for Public Health

Rajeev Gupta

Rajasthan University of Health Sciences

Tanush Gupta

Montefiore Medical Center

Juanita A. Haagsma

Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam

Vladimir Hachinski

Western University

Nima Hafezi-Nejad

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Tekleberhan B Hagos

Anatomy Unit

Tewodros Tesfa Hailegiyorgis

Haramaya University

Gessessew Bugssa Hailu

Biomedical Sciences Division

Arvin Haj-Mirzaian

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Arya Haj-Mirzaian

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Randah Ribhi Hamadeh

Arabian Gulf University

Samer Hamidi

Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University

Alexis J Handal

University of New Mexico

Graeme J. Hankey

University of Western Australia

Yuantao Hao

Sun Yat-Sen University

Hilda L. Harb

Ministry of Public Health

Hamidreza Haririan

Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

Josep Maria Haro

San Juan de Dios Sanitary Park

Mehedi Hasan

James P Grant School of Public Health

Hadi Hassankhani

Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

Hamid Yimam Hassen

University of Hail

Rasmus Havmoeller

Karolinska universitetssjukhuset

Simon I. Hay

University of Washington

Yihua He

University of Washington

Akbar Hedayatizadeh-Omran

Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

Mohamed I. Hegazy

Cairo University

Behzad Heibati

Air Pollution Research Center

Behnam Heidari

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Delia Hendrie

Curtin University

Andualem Henok

Mizan Tepi University

Nathaniel J. Henry

University of Washington

Claudiu Herteliu

Academia de Studii Economice din București

Fatemeh Heydarpour

Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences

Desalegn Tsegaw Hibstu

Hawassa University

Michael K Hole

The University of Texas at Austin

Enayatollah Homaie Rad

Guilan University of Medical Sciences

Praveen Hoogar

Manipal University

H. Dean Hosgood

American University of Beirut

Seyed Mostafa Hosseini

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Meimanat M. Hosseini Chavoshi

University of Western Australia

Mehdi Hosseinzadeh

Tehran

Mihaela Hostiuc

Emergency Hospital of Bucharest

Sorin Hostiuc

Universitatea de Medicina si Farmacie Victor Babes din Timisoara

Mohamed Hsairi

Medicine School of Tunis

Thomas Hsiao

University of Washington

Guoqing Hu

Central South University

John J. Huang

Yale University

Kim Moesgaard Iburg

Aarhus Universitet

Ehimario Uche Igumbor

University of the Western Cape

Chad Ikeda

University of Washington

Olayinka S. Ilesanmi

University of Liberia

Usman Iqbal

Taipei Medical University

Asnake Ararsa Irenso

School of Public Health

Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Oluwaseyi Oluwakemi Isehunwa

Boston University

Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

The University of Sydney

Leila Jahangiry

Health Education and Health Promotion Department

Nader Jahanmehr

Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Research Center

Sudhir Kumar Jain

National Centre for Disease Control Delhi

Mihajlo Jakovljevic

University of Kragujevac

Moti Tolera Jalu

Haramaya University

Spencer L. James

University of Washington

Simerjot K Jassal

Department of Internal Medicine

Mehdi Javanbakht

Newcastle University

Achala Upendra Jayatilleke

University of Colombo

Panniyammakal Jeemon

Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies

Ravi Prakash Jha

Banaras Hindu University

Vivekanand Jha

University of Oxford

John S Ji

Duke Kunshan University

Jost B. Jonas

Universität Heidelberg

Jacek Józwiak

Politechnika Częstochowska

Suresh Banayya Jungari

Savitribai Phule Pune University

Mikk Jürisson

Tartu Ülikool

Zubair Kabir

University College Cork

Rajendra Kadel

London School of Economics and Political Science

Amaha Kahsay

Mekelle University

Rizwan Kalani

University of Washington

Umesh Kapil

A C S Medical College and Hospital

Manoochehr Karami

Hamedan University of Medical Sciences

Behzad Karami Matin

Faculty of Public Health

André Karch

Helmholtz

Corine Kakizi Karema

Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)

Seyed M. Karimi

University of Washington

Amir Kasaeian

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Dessalegn Haile Kassa

Clinical Pharmacy Unit

Getachew Mullu Kassa

College of Health Sciences

Tesfaye Dessale Kassa

Clinical Pharmacy Unit

Zemenu Yohannes Kassa

Hawassa University

Nicholas J Kassebaum

University of Washington

Anshul Kastor

International Institute for Population Sciences

Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi

University of Glasgow

Anil Kaul

Oklahoma State University

Norito Kawakami

University of Tokyo

Ali Kazemi Karyani

Faculty of Public Health

Seifu Kebede

Salale University

Peter Njenga Keiyoro

University of Nairobi

Grant Rodgers Kemp

University of Washington

Andre Pascal Kengne

South African Medical Research Council

Andre Keren

Assuta Hospital

Maia Kereselidze

National Centre for Disease Control

Yousef Saleh Khader

Public Health and Family Medicine

Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie

Ahvaz, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences

Alireza Khajavi

Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

Nauman Khalid

University of Management and Technology

Ibrahim A. Khalil

University of Washington

Ejaz Ahmad Khan

Health Services Academy

Muhammad Shahzeb Khan

John H Stroger

Young-Ho Khang

Seoul National University

Tripti Khanna

Jawaharlal Nehru University

Mona M. Khater

Cairo University

Alireza Khatony

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Zahra Khazaeipour

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Habibolah Khazaie

Abdullah Tawfih Abdullah Khoja

Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University

Ardeshir Khosravi

Ministry of Health and Medical Education

Mohammad Hossein Khosravi

Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences

Getiye Dejenu Kibret

College of Health Sciences

Zelalem Teklemariam Kidanemariam

University of Washington

Daniel Ngari Kiirithio

Kenya Revenue Authority

Paul Evan Kilgore

Wayne State University

Daniel Kim

Northeastern University

Jun Y. Kim

University of Washington

Young-Eun Kim

Korea University

Yun Jin Kim

Xiamen University Malaysia Campus

Ruth W. Kimokoti

Simmons College

Yohannes Kinfu

University of Canberra

Sanjay Kinra

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Adnan Kisa

Universitetet i Oslo

Mika Kivimäki

Helsingin Yliopisto

University College London (UCL)

Sonali Kochhar

University of Washington

Yoshihiro Kokubo

National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center

Tufa Kolola

Debre Berhan University

Jacek A. Kopec

University of British Columbia (UBC)

Margaret N. Kosek

Johns Hopkins University

Soewarta Kosen

Parvaiz A. Koul

Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences

Ai Koyanagi

San Juan de Dios Sanitary Park

Kewal Krishan

Panjab University

Sanjay Krishnaswami

Oregon Health and Science University

Kristopher J. Krohn

University of Washington

Barthelemy Kuate Defo

Université de Montréal

Burcu Kucuk Bicer

Hacettepe Üniversitesi

G. Anil Kumar

Public Health Foundation of India

Manasi Kumar

University College London (UCL)

Pushpendra Kumar

International Institute for Population Sciences

Fekede Asefa Kumsa

School of Public Health

Michael Kutz

University of Washington

Sheetal D Lad

Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research

Alessandra Lafranconi

Universita' degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca

Dharmesh Kumar Lal

Public Health Foundation of India

Ratilal Lalloo

Universidad de Costa Rica

Hilton Lam

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda

Faris Hasan Lami

Academy of Medical Science

Justin J. Lang

Public Health Agency of Canada

Sonia Lansky

Municipal Health Department of Belo Horizonte

Van C. Lansingh

Inc.

Dennis Odai Laryea

Ghana Health Service

Zohra S. Lassi

University of Adelaide

Arman Latifi

Maragheh University of Medical Sciences

Avula Laxmaiah

Indian Council of Medical Research

Jeffrey Victor Lazarus

Universitat de Barcelona

James B. Lee

University of Washington

Paul H Lee

Hong Kong Polytechnic University

James Leigh

Asbestos Diseases Research Institute

Cheru Tesema Leshargie

Debre Markos University

Samson Leta

Addis Ababa University

Miriam Levi

Local Health Unit Tuscany Centre

Shanshan Li

Monash University

Xiaohong Li

West China Hospital

Yichong Li

Shenzhen Sun Yat-sen Cardiovascular Hospital

Juan Liang

National Office for Maternal and Child Health Surveillance

Xiaofeng Liang

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

Misgan Legesse Liben

Samara University

Lee-Ling Lim

University of Malaya

Miteku Andualem Limenih

Institute of Public Health

Shai Linn

University of Haifa

Shiwei Liu

Centre for Chronic Disease Control

Stefan Lorkowski

Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

Paulo A. Lotufo

Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP)

Rafael Lozano

University of Washington

Raimundas Lunevicius

NHS Foundation Trust

Crispin Mabika Mabika

University of Kinshasa

Erlyn Rachelle King Macarayan

University of the Philippines Manila

Mark T. Mackay

School of Health Sciences

Fabiana Madotto

Universita' degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca

Tarek Abd Elaziz Mahmood

Ministry of Health and Population

Narayan Bahadur Mahotra

Tribhuvan University

Marek Majdan

Department of Public Health

Reza Majdzadeh

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Azeem Majeed

Imperial College London

Reza Malekzadeh

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Manzoor Ahmad Malik

International Institute for Population Sciences

Indian Institute of Technology

Abdullah A. Mamun

Institute for Social Science Research

Wondimu Ayele Manamo

School of Public Health

Ana-Laura Manda

Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy

Srikanth Mangalam

Public Risk Management Institute

Mohammad Ali Mansournia

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Lorenzo G. Mantovani

Universita' degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca

Chabila C. Mapoma

University of Zambia

Dadi Marami

Haramaya University

Joemer C Maravilla

School of Public Health

Wagner Marcenes

King's College London

Shakhnazarova Marina

Medical Statistics

Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo

Science and Technology of Ceará

Winfried März

Universität Heidelberg

Melvin B Marzan

Graduate School

Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson

University of KwaZulu-Natal

Felix Masiye

University of Washington

Amanda J. Mason-Jones

University of York

Benjamin Ballard Massenburg

University of Washington

Manu Raj Mathur

Public Health Foundation of India

Pallab K Maulik

George Institute for Global Health

Mohsen Mazidi

Chalmers, Biologi och bioteknik, Livsmedelsvetenskap

John J. McGrath

Queensland Brain Institute

Suresh Mehata

Ipas Nepal

Sanjay Madhav Mehendale

Indian Council of Medical Research

Man Mohan Mehndiratta

Janakpuri Super Specialty Hospital Society

Ravi Mehrotra

National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research

Saeed Mehrzadi

Pharmacology Department

Kala M. Mehta

University of California

Varshil Mehta

Sevenhills Hospital

Tefera C. Chane Mekonnen

Wollo University

Hagazi Gebre Meles

Mekelle University

Kidanu Gebremariam Meles

Mekelle University

Addisu Melese

Debre Tabor University

Mulugeta Melku

Institute of Public Health

Peter Memiah

University of West Florida

Ziad A. Memish

Saudi Ministry of Health

Walter Mendoza

United Nations Population Fund

Melkamu Merid Mengesha

Haramaya University

Desalegn Tadese Mengistu

School of Medicine

Getnet Mengistu

School of Pharmacy

George A. Mensah

University of Cape Town

Seid Tiku Mereta

Jimma Universitetet

Atte Meretoja

School of Health Sciences

Tuomo J. Meretoja

Helsingin Yliopisto

Tomislav Mestrovic

Dr Zora Profozic Polyclinic

Haftay Berhane Mezgebe

Ethiopian Academy of Medical Science

Yode Miangotar

Université de N'Djamena

Bartosz Miazgowski

Saint Mark Hospital

Tomasz Miazgowski

Medical University of Lodz

Ted R. Miller

Curtin University

Molly Katherine Miller-Petrie

University of Washington

G.K. Mini

Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies

Parvaneh Mirabi

Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Center

Andreea Mirica

National Institute of Statistics

Erkin M. Mirrakhimov

Kyrgyz State Medical Academy

Awoke Misganaw

University of Washington

Babak Moazen

Universität Heidelberg

Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad

Salahaddin University

Moslem Mohammadi

Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

Noushin Mohammadifard

Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

Maryam Mohammadi-Khanaposhtani

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Mohammed A. Mohammed

Jigjiga University

Shafiu Mohammed

Universität Heidelberg

Ali H. Mokdad

University of Washington

Glen Liddell D. Mola

University of Papua New Guinea

Mariam Molokhia

King's College London

Lorenzo Monasta

IRCCS Burlo Garofolo

Julio Cesar Montañez

National Health Research Institutes

Ghobad Moradi

Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences

Mahmoudreza Moradi

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Maziar Moradi-Lakeh

Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center

Mehdi Moradinazar

School of Public Health

Paula Moraga

Lancaster University

Joana Morgado-Da-costa

Hospital Center of Porto

Rintaro Mori

National Center for Child Health and Development

Shane D. Morrison

University of Washington

Abbas Mosapour

Babol University of Medical Sciences

Marilita M Moschos

University of Athens

Seyyed Meysam Mousavi

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Achenef Asmamaw Muche

Institute of Public Health

Kindie Fentahun Muchie

Institute of Public Health

Ulrich O. Mueller

Federal Institute for Population Research

Satinath Mukhopadhyay

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Tasha B. Murphy

University of Washington

Kate Muller

University of Washington

Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana Murthy

Indian Institute of Public Health - Hyderabad

Jonah Musa

University of Jos

Kamarul Imran Musa

Universiti Sains Malaysia

Ghulam Mustafa

Nishtar Medical University

Saravanan Muthupandian

Mekelle University

Jean B. Nachega

Johns Hopkins University

Gabriele Nagel

Universität Ulm

Mohsen Naghavi

University of Washington

Aliya Naheed

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh

Azin Nahvijou

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Gurudatta A. Naik

University of Alabama

Paulami Naik

University of Washington

Farid Najafi

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Luigi Naldi

San Bortolo Hospital

Vinay Nangia

Suraj Eye Institute

Jobert Richie Njingang Nansseu

Ministry of Public Health

Bruno Ramos Nascimento

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Haseeb Nawaz

Mercy Saint Vincent Medical Center

Busisiwe P. Ncama

University of Lagos

Nahid Neamati

Babol University of Medical Sciences

Ionut Negoi

Anatomy and Embryology Department

Ruxandra Irina Negoi

Cardio-Aid

Subas Neupane

Tampereen Yliopisto

Charles R. Newton

Wellcome Trust Research Programme

University of Oxford

Frida N. Ngalesoni

Ministry of Health and Social Welfare

Josephine Wanjiku Ngunjiri

University of Embu

Grant Nguyen

University of Washington

Long Nguyen

Nguyen Tat Thanh University

Trang Huyen Nguyen

Nguyen Tat Thanh University

Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum

Taipei Medical University

Yirga Legesse Nirayo

Clinical Pharmacy Unit

Muhammad Imran Nisar

Aga Khan University

Molly R. Nixon

University of Washington

Shuhei Nomura

University of Tokyo

Mehdi Noroozi

University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences

Jean Jacques N. Noubiap

University of Cape Town

Hamid Reza Nouri

Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center

Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh

Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

Mohammad Reza Nowroozi

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Alypio Nyandwi

Rwanda Ministry of Health

Peter S Nyasulu

Universiteit Stellenbosch

Christopher M Odell

University of Washington

Richard Ofori-Asenso

Monash University

Okechukwu Samuel Ogah

University College Hospital

Felix Akpojene Ogbo

Western Sydney University

In-Hwan Oh

Kyung Hee University

Anselm Okoro

Measurement

Olanrewaju Oladimeji

Human Sciences Research Council

Andrew Toyin Olagunju

University of Lagos

Tinuke Oluwasefunmi Olagunju

McMaster University

Pedro R. Olivares

Autonomous University of Chile

Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya

Center for Healthy Start Initiative

Jacob Olusegun Olusanya

Center for Healthy Start Initiative

Sok King Ong

Ministry of Health

Alberto Ortiz

Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM)

Aaron Osgood-Zimmerman

University of Washington

Erika Ota

St Luke's International University

Brenda Achieng Otieno

Monitoring and Evaluation

Stanislav S Otstavnov

Moscow State University

Mayowa Ojo Owolabi

University of Ibadan

Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

North-West University

P. Mahesh

JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research

Smita Pakhale

University of Ottawa, Canada

Abhijit P Pakhare

All India Institute of Medical Sciences

Adrian Pana

Center for Health Outcomes and Evaluation

Basant Kumar Panda

International Institute for Population Sciences

Songhomitra Panda-Jonas

Universität Heidelberg

Achyut Raj Pandey

Nepal Health Research Council

Eun-Kee Park

College of Medicine

Hadi Parsian

Babol University of Medical Sciences

Shanti Patel

Maimonides Medical Center

Snehal T. Patil

Deemed University

Ajay Patle

International Institute of Health Management Research

International Institute for Population Sciences

George C. Patton

School of Health Sciences

Vishnupriya Rao Paturi

Diabetes Research Society

Deepak Paudel

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München

Marcel Moraes Pedroso

Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca

Emmanuel K. Peprah

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda

David M. Pereira

Universidade do Porto

Norberto Perico

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri

Konrad Pesudovs

Glenelg

William A. Petri

University of Virginia

Max Petzold

Göteborgs universitet

Maxwell Pierce

University of Washington

David M. Pigott

University of Washington

Julian David Pillay

Durban University of Technology

Meghdad Pirsaheb

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Guilherme V. Polanczyk

Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP)

Maarten J. Postma

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Farshad Pourmalek

School of Population and Public Health

Akram Pourshams

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Hossein Poustchi

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Swayam Prakash

Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences

Narayan Prasad

Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences

Caroline Purcell

University of Washington

Manorama B Purwar

Government Medical College

Mostafa Qorbani

Alborz University of Medical Sciences

Reginald Quansah

University of Ghana

Amir Radfar

A T Still University

Anwar Rafay

Contech School of Public Health

Alireza Rafiei

Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

Fakher Rahim

Ahvaz, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences

Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Mahfuzar Rahman

La Trobe University

Md Shafiur Rahman

University of Tokyo

Mohammad Hifz Ur Rahman

Muhammad Aziz Rahman

BRAC University

Sajjad Ur Rahman

North-West University

Rajesh Kumar Rai

Society for Health and Demographic Surveillance

Fatemeh Rajati

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Sasa Rajsic

Medizinische Universität Innsbruck

Usha Ram

International Institute for Population Sciences

Chhabi Lal Ranabhat

Yonsei University

Prabhat Ranjan

University of Alabama

David Laith Rawaf

Imperial College London

Salman Rawaf

Imperial College London

Sarah E. Ray

University of Washington

Christian Aspacia Razo-García

Center for Population Health Research

Robert C. Reiner

University of Washington

Cesar Reis

Loma Linda University Medical Center

Giuseppe Remuzzi

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri

Andre M.N. Renzaho

School of Social Sciences and Psychology

Serge Resnikoff

Brien Holden Vision Institute

Satar Rezaei

School of Public Health

Shahab Rezaeian

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Mohammad Sadegh Rezai

Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

Seyed Mohammad Riahi

Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

Maria Jesus Rios Blancas

Center for Health Systems Research

Kedir Teji Roba

Hawassa University

Nicholas L. S. Roberts

University of Washington

Leonardo Roever

Federal University of Uberlândia

Luca Ronfani

IRCCS Burlo Garofolo

Gholamreza Roshandel

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Ali Rostami

Center for Infectious Diseases Research

Enrico Rubagotti

IKIAM Amazon Regional University

George Mugambage Ruhago

School of Public Health

Yogesh Damodar Sabde

National Institute for Research in Environmental Health

Perminder S. Sachdev

School of Psychiatry

Basema Saddik

University of Sharjah

Sahar Saeedi Moghaddam

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Hosein Safari

Ahvaz, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences

Yahya Safari

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Roya Safari-Faramani

Faculty of Public Health

Mahdi Safdarian

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Sare Safi

Ophthalmic Epidemiology Research Center

Saeid Safiri

Maragheh University of Medical Sciences

Rajesh Sagar

All India Institute of Medical Sciences

Amirhossein Sahebkar

Mashhad University of Medical Sciences

Mohammad Ali Sahraian

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Haniye Sadat Sajadi

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Mohamadreza Salahshoor

A C S Medical College and Hospital

Nasir Salam

Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University

Joseph Salama

University of Washington

Payman Salamati

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Raphael De Freitas Saldanha

Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca

Zikria Saleem

Punjab University College of Pharmacy

Yahya Salimi

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Hamideh Salimzadeh

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Joshua A. Salomon

Stanford University

Sundeep Santosh Salvi

Chest Research Foundation

Inbal Salz

Ministry of Health

Evanson Zondani Sambala

South African Medical Research Council

Abdallah M. Samy

Ain Shams University

Juan Ramon Sanabria

Marshall University

Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño

Jimenez Diaz Foundation University Hospital Institute for Health Research

Itamar S. Santos

Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP)

Milena M. Santric Milicevic

Univerzitet u Beogradu

Bruno Piassi Sao Jose

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Mayank Sardana

University of Massachusetts Medical School

Abdur Razzaque Sarker

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh

Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez

Faculty of Medicine

Satish Saroshe

Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College

Nizal Sarrafzadegan

School of Population and Public Health

Benn Sartorius

University of KwaZulu-Natal

Shahabeddin Sarvi

Toxoplasmosis Research Center

Brijesh Sathian

Hamad Medical Corporation

Maheswar Satpathy

Utkal University

Arundhati R. Sawant

University of Alabama

Monika Sawhney

The University of North Carolina at Charlotte

Bo Norrving

Imperial College London

Elke Schaeffner

Institute of Public Health

Kathryn Schelonka

University of Washington

Ione J. C. Schneider

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

David C. Schwebel

University of Alabama

Falk Schwendicke

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin

Soraya Seedat

Universiteit Stellenbosch

Mario Sekerija

Croatian Institute of Public Health

Sadaf G. Sepanlou

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Edson E. Servan-Mori

Center for Health Systems Research

Hosein Shabaninejad

Iran University of Medical Sciences

Katya Anne Shackelford

University of Washington

Azadeh Shafieesabet

NYU Langone Medical Center

Amira A. Shaheen

An-Najah National University

Masood Ali Shaikh

Raad A. Shakir

Imperial College London

Mehran Shams-Beyranvand

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Mohammadbagher Shamsi

Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation

Morteza Shamsizadeh

Hamedan University of Medical Sciences

Heidar Sharafi

Middle East Liver Disease Center

Kiomars Sharafi

Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Mehdi Sharif

Islamic Azad University

Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Jayendra Sharma

Ministry of Health

Rajesh Sharma

Delhi Technological University

Jun She

Fudan University

Aziz Sheikh

Harvard University

Peilin Shi

Tufts University

Kenji Shibuya

University of Tokyo

Mika Shigematsu

National Institute of Infectious Diseases

Rahman Shiri

Työterveyslaitos

Reza Shirkoohi

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Ivy Shiue

Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg

Farhad Shokraneh

University of Nottingham

Sharvari Rahul Shukla

Symbiosis International University

Si Si

Monash University

Soraya Siabani

Imam Ali Cardiovascular Research Center

Abla Mehio Sibai

American University of Beirut

Tariq J Siddiqi

Dow University of Health Sciences

Inga Dora Sigfusdottir

Reykjavik University

Rannveig Sigurvinsdottir

Reykjavik University

Naris Silpakit

University of Washington

Diego Augusto Santos Silva

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

Joao Pedro Silva

Universidade do Porto

Dayane Gabriele Alves Silveira

Universidade de Brasilia

Narayana Sarma Venkata Singam

University of Louisville

Jasvinder A. Singh

University of Alabama

Narinder Pal Singh

Max Hospital

Virendra Singh

Asthma Bhawan

Dhirendra Narain Sinha

School of Preventive Oncology

Karen Sliwa

University of Cape Town

Adauto Martins Soares Filho

Ministry of Health of Brazil

Badr H.A. Sobaih

King Khalid University Hospital

Soheila Sobhani

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Moslem Soofi

School of Public Health

Joan B. Soriano

Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM)

Ireneous N. Soyiri

University of Edinburgh

Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy

International Medical University

Vladimir I Starodubov

Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation

Caitlyn Steiner

University of Washington

Leo G. Stewart

University of Washington

Mark Andrew Stokes

Deakin University

Mark Strong

University of Sheffield

Michelle L Subart

University of Washington

Muawiyyah Babale Sufiyan

Ahmadu Bello University

Gerhard Sulo

Norwegian Institute of Public Health

Bruno F. Sunguya

Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences

Patrick J. Sur

University of Washington

Ipsita Sutradhar

James P Grant School of Public Health

Bryan L. Sykes

University of California at Irvine (UCI)

P.N. Sylaja

Neurology Department

Dillon O. Sylte

University of Washington

Cassandra E I Szoeke

Australian Catholic University

Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos

Universitat de Valencia

Karen M. Tabb

University of Illinois

Santosh Kumar Tadakamadla

Griffith University

Nikhil Tandon

All India Institute of Medical Sciences

Aberash Abay Tassew

Institute of Public Health

Segen Gebremeskel Tassew

Mekelle University

Nuno Taveira

University Institute Egas Moniz

Nega Yimer Tawye

Wollo University

Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi

Iran University of Medical Sciences

Tigist Gashaw Tekalign

Haramaya University

Merhawi Gebremedhin Tekle

School of Public Health

Mohamad-Hani Temsah

King Saud University

Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi

University of Virginia

Manaye Yihune Teshale

Arba Minch University

Belay Tessema

University of Gondar

Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin

Aksum University

J.S. Thakur

Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research

Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan

Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies

Sathish Thirunavukkarasu

Nanyang Technological University

Nihal Thomas

Christian Medical College

Alan J. Thomson

Adaptive Knowledge Management

Binyam Tilahun

Institute of Public Health

Quyen G. To

Queensland University of Technology (QUT)

Marcello Tonelli

University of Calgary

Roman Topor-Madry

Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System

Anna Torre

University of Washington

Miguel Tortajada-Girbés

Universitat de Valencia

Marcos Roberto Tovani Palone

Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP)

Hideaki Toyoshima

Nagoya University

Bach Xuan Tran

Hanoi Medical University

Khanh Bao Tran

University of Auckland

Srikanth Prasad Tripathy

National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis

Thomas Truelsen

Köpenhamns universitet

Nu Thi Truong

Duy Tan University

Afewerki Gebremeskel Tsadik

School of Pharmacy

Amanuel Tsegay

College of Health Sciences

Nikolaos Tsilimparis

Universitatsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf und Medizinische Fakultat

Lorainne Tudor Car

Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine

Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja

Federal Teaching Hospital

Irfan Ullah

Gomal University

Muhammad Shariq Usman

Dow University of Health Sciences

Olalekan A. Uthman

The University of Warwick

Selen Begüm Uzun

Ankara Universitesi

Muthiah Vaduganathan

Harvard University

Afsane Vaezi

Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

Gaurang Vaidya

University of Louisville

Pascual Rubén Valdez

Ciudad De Buenos Aires

Elena Varavikova

Central Research Institute of Cytology and Genetics

Santosh Varughese

Christian Medical College

Tommi Vasankari

UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research

Ana Maria Nogales Vasconcelos

Universidade de Brasilia

Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian

Raffles Hospital

Santos Villafaina

Universidad de Extremadura

Francesco S Violante

Sant’Orsola Malpighi Hospital

Universita di Bologna

Sergey K. Vladimirov

Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation

Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov

National Research University Higher School of Economics

Stein Emil Vollset

University of Washington

Theo Vos

University of Washington

Kia Vosoughi

Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center

Isidora S Vujcic

Univerzitet u Beogradu

Fasil Wagnew

Debre Markos University

Yasir Waheed

Foundation University Medical College

Judd L. Walson

University of Washington

Yanping Wang

Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP)

Yuan-Pang Wang

National Office for Maternal and Child Health Surveillance

Elisabete Weiderpass

Karolinska Institutet

Robert G. Weintraub

Royal Children's Hospital

Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs

Clinical Pharmacy Unit

Andrea Werdecker

Demographic Change and Ageing Research Area

Ronny Westerman

Competence Center Mortality-Follow-Up of the German National Cohort

Harvey A. Whiteford

University of Washington

Justyna Widecka

Zdroje Hospital

Katarzyna Widecka

Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin

Tissa Wijeratne

La Trobe University

Andrea Sylvia Winkler

Universitetet i Oslo

Charles Shey Wiysonge

Universiteit Stellenbosch

Charles D.A. Wolfe

King's College London

Shouling Wu

Kailuan General Hospital

Grant M.A. Wyper

Information Services Division

Gelin Xu

Nanjing University

Tomohide Yamada

University of Tokyo

Yuichiro Yano

Northwestern University

Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Yasin Jemal Yasin

School of Public Health

Pengpeng Ye

Division of Injury Prevention and Mental Health Improvement

Gökalp Kadri Yentür

Ministry of Health Turkey

Alex Yeshaneh

Wolkite University

Ebrahim Mohammed

School of Pharmacy

Paul Yip

Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention

Engida Yisma

School of Allied Health Sciences

Naohiro Yonemoto

Kyoto University

Seok-Jun Yoon

Northeastern University

Marcel Yotebieng

School of Public Health

Mustafa Z. Younis

Jackson State University

Mahmoud Yousefifard

Physiology Research Center

Chuanhua Yu

Wuhan University

Vesna Zadnik

Epidemiology and Cancer Registry

Zoubida Zaidi

University Hospital of Setif

Sojib Bin Zaman

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh

Mohammad Zamani

Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences

Zohreh Zare

Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

Mulugeta Molla Zeleke

School of Pharmacy

Zerihun Menlkalew Zenebe

Debre Berhan University

Taddese Alemu Zerfu

African Population Health Research Centre

Xueying Zhang

University of Texas

Xiu-Ju Zhao

Wuhan University of Technology

Maigeng Zhou

Non-communicable Disease Control and Prevention Center

Jun Zhu

National Office for Maternal and Child Health Surveillance

Stephanie R.M. Zimsen

University of Washington

Sanjay Zodpey

Indian Institute of Public Health

Leo Zoeckler

University of Washington

Alan D. Lopez

University of Washington

Stephen S. Lim

University of Washington

The Lancet

0140-6736 (ISSN) 1474-547X (eISSN)

Vol. 392 10159 1995-2051

Ämneskategorier

Miljömedicin och yrkesmedicin

Gerontologi, medicinsk/hälsovetenskaplig inriktning

Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi

DOI

10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32278-5

PubMed

30496106

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2020-12-01