The SOFIA Massive (SOMA) Star Formation Survey. II. High Luminosity Protostars
Reviewartikel, 2019

We present multiwavelength images observed with SOFIA-FORCAST from similar to 10 to 40 mu m of seven high luminosity massive protostars, as part of the SOFIA Massive Star Formation Survey. Source morphologies at these wavelengths appear to be influenced by outflow cavities and extinction from dense gas surrounding the protostars. Using these images, we build spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the protostars, also including archival data from Spitzer, Herschel, and other facilities. Radiative transfer (RT) models of Zhang & Tan, based on Turbulent Core Accretion theory, are then fit to the SEDs to estimate key properties of the protostars. Considering the best five models fit to each source, the protostars have masses m* similar to 12-64 M circle dot accreting at rates of m* similar to 10(-4) -10(-3) M circle dot yr(-1) inside cores of initial masses M-c similar to 100-500 M circle dot embedded in clumps with mass surface densities Sigma(cl) similar to 0.1-3 g cm(-2) and span a luminosity range of 10(4) -10(6) L circle dot. Compared with the first eight protostars in Paper I, the sources analyzed here are more luminous and, thus, likely to be more massive protostars. They are often in a clustered environment or have a companion protostar relatively nearby. From the range of parameter space of the models, we do not see any evidence that Sigma(cl) needs to be high to form these massive stars. For most sources, the RT models provide reasonable fits to the SEDs, though the cold clump material often influences the long wavelength fitting. However, for sources in very clustered environments, the model SEDs may not be such a good description of the data, indicating potential limitations of the models for these regions.

dust, extinction

ISM: jets and outflows

stars: formation Supporting material: data behind figures, machine-readable table

infrared: stars

stars: early-type


Mengyao Liu

University of Virginia

Jonathan Tan

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Astronomi och plasmafysik

James M. De Buizer

NASA Ames Research Center

Yichen Zhang


Maria T. Beltran

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Jan E. Staff

University of The Virgin Islands


Osaka University

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Barbara Whitney

University of Wisconsin Madison

Viviana Rosero

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Socorro

Astrophysical Journal

0004-637X (ISSN) 1538-4357 (eISSN)

Vol. 874 1 16


Meteorologi och atmosfärforskning

Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi

Annan fysik



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