Si3N4 photonic integration platform at 1 µm for optical interconnects
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2020
Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are the predominant technology for high-speed short-range interconnects in data centers. Most short-range interconnects rely on GaAs-based multi-mode VCSELs and multi-mode fiber links operating at 850 nm. Recently, GaAs-based high-speed single-mode VCSELs at wavelengths > 1 µm have been demonstrated, which increases the interconnect reach using a single-mode fiber while maintaining low energy dissipation. If a suitable platform for passive wavelength- and space-multiplexing were developed in this wavelength range, this single-mode technology could deliver the multi-Tb/s interconnect capacity that will be required in future data centers. In this work, we show the first passive Si3N4 platform in the 1-µm band (1030-1075 nm) with an equivalent loss < 0.3 dB/cm, which is compatible with the system requirements of high-capacity interconnects. The waveguide structure is optimized to achieve simultaneously single-mode operation and low bending radius, and we demonstrate a wide range of high-performance building blocks, including arrayed waveguide gratings, Mach-Zehnder interferometers, splitters and low-loss fiber interfaces. This technology could be instrumental in scaling up the capacity and reducing the footprint of VCSEL-based optical interconnects and, thanks to the broad transparency in the near-infrared and compatibility with the Yb fiber amplifier window, enabling new applications in other domains as optical microscopy and nonlinear optics.