Climate mitigation policies and actions: access and allocation issues
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2020
As part of the Special Issue on Access and Allocation, this paper explores how reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide raises a number of access and allocation issues and identifies the possible solutions to the existing problems. The access elements include the right to development and basic needs satisfaction and the allocation issues include distribution of resources, risks and burdens and the assignment of responsibilities. The development pathways for many developing countries will be constrained by national level GHG emission reduction commitments as well as sub-national efforts. Yet, the current level of commitments is not sufficient to keep global temperature increase below 1.5 °C. Hence, an important question is what does a decadal review of the relevant literature tell us about how to conceptualize and define access and allocation in the area of climate change mitigation governance? The paper concludes that access and allocation issues of climate change mitigation are inextricably interlinked; calling for holistic
strategies for mitigating environmental impacts while addressing social problems. The access issues can be governed through market mechanisms, in combination with an equity and justice approach for the poorest communities, and technology and social innovation, while allocation issues are governed by public policies, institutions, bottom–up decision making, mainstreaming of climate policies and international cooperation. The main characteristics of developing countries have not been adequately incorporated in present-day mitigation models. Further multidisciplinary research is needed to foster efficient and equitable climate, energy and forest governance which should be consistent with sustainable, inclusive and low carbon development pathways.